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Hawksbill Sea Turtle
Transcript of Hawksbill Sea Turtle
Species Names: imbricata
Binomial Name: Eretmochelys imbricata Description Color Size As an adult, the Hawksbill Sea Turtle is commonly two and a half feet in length and typically weighs around 176 pounds or less. The Hawksbill Sea Turtle is generally brown with numerous splashes of yellow, orange, or reddish brown. - Forelimbs are modified into long, paddle-like flippers for swimming.
-Many adaptations that make sea turtles successful in the sea make them slow and vulnerable on land.
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"U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2013. Range and Habitat Hawksbill Sea Turtles use different habitats at different stages of their life, but are most commonly associated with healthy coral reefs. The Hawksbill Sea Turtle Hawksbills require rocky areas, coral reefs, shallow coastal areas, lagoons or oceanic islands, and narrow creeks and passes. They are seldom seen in water deeper than 65 feet. The Hawksbill Sea Turtles are found in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and in The Caribbean. The Hawksbill Sea Turtle contributes to the environment because if it did not exist its predators would die out and its prey would overpopulate. The Caribbean The official endangered status is: Critically Endangered Major threats to the species survival: There are about 55,000 left in the wild. The percentage keeps dropping due to the changes in the sea levels and the sea temperatures. Mallorie Anderson and Kitanna Ha -Direct and Indirect Over exportation. -Habitat loss -Oil Spills Reproduction The six month nesting season of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle is longer than that of other sea turtles. Nesting occurs between July and October and courtship begins sometime earlier. Nesting in The Caribbean is principally nocturnal, although rare daytime nesting does occur. Predators -Hatchlings are much more susceptible to predators than adults. Ghost crabs, raccoons, skunks, opossums, mongooses, and dogs feed on the turtle eggs.
-Various nocturnal mammals and crabs feed on the hatch lings when they first hatch, and fish and seabirds are a threat to hatch lings in the water.
-Only sharks are large enough to prey upon the adult turtles. Cool Fact The largest nesting population of hawksbills appears to occur in Australia The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species(CITES) forbids the trade of any turtle products on the international market, including the "tortoise shell" from Hawksbill Turtles. What measures are being taken to ensure species survival? Specialized Structures Sexual Maturity Sexual maturity is reached when the animal weighs approximately 80 pounds; the actual age is unknown. The first stage of their life cycle is when they are in the eggs. After about two months, the hatchling turtles emerge at night. The light reflected off the water from the sky guides them to the sea. Following the "lost years", when they have grown to approximately the size of a dinner plate, their pelagic (open ocean) phase comes to an end and they return to coastal waters where they forage and continue to mature. Life Cycle From the time they take their first swim until they return to coastal waters to forage as juveniles may be as long as a decade. This period of time is often referred to as the "lost years". Once they reach sexual maturity they will migrate to nesting areas to breed. Only females will come ashore to lay eggs, generally in the area where they were born. Most species will nest multiple times during a nesting season at intervals of 2-4 years over the course of their lifetime. Nesting Behaviors Hawksbills are capable of nesting faster than any other species of sea turtles and can complete the entire process in less than 45 minutes. Females return to the beaches where they were born (natal beaches) to nest, which occurs every 2-3 years at night and approximately every 14-16 days during the nesting season. Digestion Most vertebrates have similar digestive systems and the turtle is no exception. Turtles are not strictly herbivores, all species are found to eat at least some meat which causes them to have powerful digestive enzymes. In addition turtles swallow their food with very little chewing. Food particles are often whole or in fairly large chunks. The salivary glands of the turtle help to soften and break down the food to make swallowing possible. How have human's used these animals or exploited through history? The decline of this species is primarily due to human exploitation for tortoiseshell. While the legal hawksbill shell trade ended when Japan agreed to stop importing shell in 1993, a significant illegal trade continues. What is the date of the earliest fossils? What ancient or tribal customs have used this species and explain how they were used? Wayamba the Turtle Summary Historical Significance The earliest known sea turtles appear in the fossil record in the Late Jurassic period, 208 to 144 million years ago. Scientists believe that modern sea turtles are derived from marsh-inhabiting ancestors that lived during the Late Triassic period. I did not find any ancient or tribal customs that have used the Hawksbill sea turtle, but Hawksbill shells are the primary source of tortoiseshell material used for decorative purposes There was a man named Wayamba who had stolen a family and his village got angry with him and decided to attack him. He decided to put a shield on his front and his back to cover his body. When the spears of his village people were thrown at him he would pull his arms, legs and head in the shield. Later he dived into the ocean for shelter and no one could find him, all they could find was an animal with a shell and when they tried to grab it the animal stuck its arms, legs, and head inside the shell. So they said, "It's Wayamba." And this was the beginning of Wayamba or Turtles, in the creek. Natural Threats Human induced Threats. The natural threats are when the predators eat them or destroy a clutch of eggs. In many coastal communities, especially in Central America and Asia, sea turtles have provided a source of food. During the nesting season, turtle hunters comb the beaches at night looking for nesting females. Once she lays her eggs they take the eggs and the female. Additionally, people may use other parts of the turtle for products, including the oil, cartilage, skin and shell. What are the chances that a Hawksbill sea turtle will reach adulthood? Sadly, only an estimated one in 1,000 to 10,000 will survive to adulthood. Turtle Tracking/Research Programs Satellite transmitters were attached using epoxy to the carapace of two hawksbill turtles immediately after oviposition on North East Island, 12 km NE of Groote Eylandt on 2 August 2005. The turtles were named Numarngainyamba (meaning Cheeky) and Numinuwurrariyaamakilya (meaning Bad Skin) in the local Anindilyakwa language by the Traditional Owners and Sea Rangers. The Argos data were analysed using STAT. The results were sufficient to indicate no long distance migration What can YOU do to make a difference in whether or not this species survives? You can recycle so waste products do not end up in oceans.You can not buy or sell the shells/turtle products. You can also volenteer at a turtle shelter/rescue unit.