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Natural Biogeochemical Cycles - AP Environmental Science Review

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Tessa Rogers

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Natural Biogeochemical Cycles - AP Environmental Science Review

Carbon
Cycle

Nitrogen
Cycle

Sulfur
Cycle

Natural Biogeochemical Cycles
Phosphorous
Cycle

Water
Cycle

Conservation
of
Matter

Carbon Cycle
Carbon
is the basic building block of life
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the carbon cycle was fairly balanced, but now more carbon dioxide is being deposited in the Earth’s atmosphere than is being removed. This increase is due to the burning of wood and fossil fuels and deforestation

Respiration of plants and animals that release carbon dioxide and methane
Decay of organic material
Burning of fossil fuels, wood, coal, and ect.
Weatherization of rocks, especially erosion of limestone, marble and chalk
Volcanic eruptions
Release of carbon dioxide by warmer ocean waters

How Carbon is Released into Atmosphere
Plant mater
: Removes 15% of carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis --->


Terrestrial biosphere:
Freshwater systems and nonliving organisms, forest store 86% of above ground carbon and 73% of soil carbon. Tress store carbon for several hundred years and soils for thousands of years
Oceans:
Gaining 2 gigatons of carbon each year, removing carbon dioxide from water raises the pH
Sedimentary deposits:
Limestone, carbon trapped fossil fuels and coal. Limestone is the largest reservoir of carbon in the cycle


Major Carbon Sinks

1) Respiration of plants and animals that release carbon dioxide and methane
2) Decay of organic material
Burning of fossil fuels, wood, coal, and ect.
3) Weatherization of rocks, especially erosion of limestone, marble and chalk
4) Volcanic eruptions
5) Release of carbon dioxide by warmer ocean waters

How Carbon is Released into Atmosphere

Nitrogen
makes up 78% of the atmosphere
Essential element needed t make amino acids, portions and nucleic acids
The natural cycling is in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to nitrogen oxides by lightning and deposited in the soil by rain where it is assimilated by plants and either eaten by animals or decomposed back into elemental nitrogen by bacteria

Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Fixation
- Nitrogen must be in the form of ammonia (NH3) or nitrate (NO3). Atmospheric nitrogen can be “fixed” into these forms by actions of certain bacteria called Rhizobium. These bacteria live in the roots of legumes
Nitrification
- Soil bacteria converts ammonium (NH4) into one of the forms that can be used by plants- nitrate (NO3).
Assimilation
- Plants absorb ammonium, ammonia ions, and nitrate ions through their roots. Heterotrophs then obtain nitrogen when they consume plants’ proteins and nucleic acid.
Ammonification
- Decomposing bacteria convert dead organism and other waste to ammonia or ammonium ions, which can be reused by plants.
Denitrification
- Specialized bacteria convert ammonia back into nitrites and nitrates and then into nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide gas (N2O). The gases then rise to the atmosphere.

Steps to Nitrogen Cycle
Phosphorus
is essential for production of nucleotides, bones, teeth and shells
Not found in atmosphere but in sedimentary rocks
Slowly released from rocks by weathering and acid rain, it dissolves into the soil and is taken up by plants
Key element used in fertilizer


Phosphorus Cycle
Mined large quantities of rocks to collect phosphorous
Clear-cutting tropical habitats for agriculture decreases amount of available phosphorous
Apply phosphate-containing fertilizers to fields
Allow run off from feedlots, fertilizes, and sewage plants that collects in lakes, ponds and streams
This causes increase growth of cyanobacteria, green algae, and aquatic plants, which results in decreased oxygen content in the water which kills then other organisms

Human Effect on Phosphorous Cycle
Most
sulfur
is found in underground rocks and deep oceanic deposits
Sulfur naturally enters the atmosphere through volcanic eruptions, certain bacterial functions, and decay of dead organism
Plants absorb sulfur when it’s dissolved in water, can take it up through their roots when it’s dissolved in groundwater.
Animals obtain sulfur by eating plants.
Human activity emits sulfur via industrial processes that contributes to air pollution.

Sulfur Cycle
The
water cycle
is powered by energy from the sun
Solar energy evaporates water
Oceans hold 97% of all water, and are the source of 86% of all global evaporation
Evaporation from oceans keep the earth from over heating

Water Cycle

The water cycle is in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of precipitation
Human Impact on Water Cycle

Energy
and
Matter
can be neither created nor destroyed but can only change it’s form
Conversion of one type of mater into another is
always
accompanied by energy turning from one form to another
Usually heat is given off or absorbed and sometimes it light or electrical energy in addition to heat

Conservation of Matter and Energy

AP Environmental Science Review
Overview
Apart of The Living World Unit
10%-15% of the test
All key concept words will be in
BOLD
so keep an eye out for them!
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Phosphorous cycle
Sulfur Cycle
Water Cycle
Conservation of Matter

Topics That Will Be Covered
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
Phosphorus Cycle
Some Key terms of the cycle:
Precipitation
- Condensation of water from a gaseous state to a liquid or solid. The water becomes dense enough to fall to the earth due to gravity, aka
RAIN
Groundwater
- catches precipitation, travels across land’s surface and enters a drainage system such as a stream or river.
Evaporation
- Water goes from a liquid state to a gaseous state.
Transpiration
- When plants release large amounts of water into the air.
The End
Good luck on the AP Exam!
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Full transcript