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Transcript of South Africa
South Africa is very diverse because of all the tribes inhabiting the area. There are various different languages, tribes and ways to dress.S
Why does it matter?
Southern Africa has an extremely rich history
The countries that make up Southern Africa are: Swaziland, South Africa, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia.
Sign language- 0.5%
Almost all of the countries are multi-party democracies except for one. Swaziland is a monarchy ruled by King Mswati.
Colonization of Mozambique
During the 16nth century Portugal traded along the cost for precious metals and slaves.
In 1752 Mozambique was made a Portuguese colony then a war for liberation was started in 1964.
The war led to independence from Portugal in 1975 but civil war continued for many years after that.
The five most common animals are: the rhino, elephant, buffalo, leopard, and the lion. Other animals include zebras, giraffes, many reptiles and marine animals. Most of these animals are found in places like the Kruger National Park and the Kwazulu Natal Nature Reserve, and aren't common in cities, in which many people live.
Although isiZulu is the most spoken language in all of South Africa, English is also very popular.It is the fourth most spoken language, right after Afrikaans. English is spoken by non-whites, normally the term "English Speaker" is used for non-Afrikaaners who have no cultural similarities.
Colonization of South Africa
In 1652 the Dutch arrived at the Cape and became a refreshment spot for sailors. They started to colonize but didn't really impact local people.
The British arrived in the 18nth century and the Cape colony was ceded to them in 1814
Conflict began between natives and colonizers, the Zulu ruler was murdered in 1828
Many years after Zulu war and two Anglo-Boer wars took place and as a result the country was unified under the control of the british in 1910
Independence for the white minority rule took place in 1934 and soon came the apartheid.
Colonization of Zambia and Zimbabwe
Zambia was called northern Rhodesia was grouped together with southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland in 1953 to form a federation.
In 1963 Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Malawi) pulled out of the federation.
After many politic conflicts Zimbabwe was finally able to achieve independence in 1980.
Zambia became independent in 1964 (almost 20 years earlier) as a part of a program that was trying to lower the amount of power in Southern Rhodesia.
Although South Africa is considered mostly arid, there are some variations both in climate and in topography. It is extremely hot during the summer in some places, yet it can be really cold in others during winter (Mediterranean climate). While in the Western Cape of Southern Africa the rain falls mostly during winter, in the rest of the region, rain is present during all seasons. During winter, the days are mostly hot, and the nights cold. An interesting fact about the South African climate is that during winter, some mountains even have snow!
The apartheid was an extremely important event in history that affected South Africa.
During the year 1958 the prime minister of South Africa introduced the apartheid.
The apartheid was basically the racial segregation between white and black supported by laws.
Soon many resistances emerged. One of them was the African National Congress that fought for the rights of colored people.
Nelson Mandela, who was one of the main fighters for the rights of black people, was arrested for betrayal in 1967.
With all of the pressure and resistance the apartheid system broke down and Mandela was released from jail in 1990
During the year 1994 the first democratic election took place and Nelson Mandela became South Africa's first democratic president
Get into groups of 4 and each group has to answer a question below.
Southern Africa’s semi-desert places don’t have a very big plant variety, but when it comes to grassland, there are over 60 different species of plants! There are eight ecological life zones, with distinct conditions and different animals and plants, including the grasslands and deserts. A very unique tree in Southern Africa is the Baobab, which is also known as the "upside down tree", by the natives of the region, who believe the tree was accidentally planted upside down.
Basically what is apartheid?
Where did the Dutch first settle?Why did they do so?
Who was Nelson Mandela?
What was the African National Congress and what was their function?
Customs and Traditions
Art and music can vary depending on were you live and what tribe you are part of. We have picked the most common forms to explain.
In Southern Africa, food is internationally influenced. All food is from early Europeans mixed with native Southern African tribes and Asian dishes. Some popular ingredients in African cuisine are chicken, tomatoes, spices, chili, beans, lemons and limes, and corn (mealie) in form of breads and flour. Another common food in the region is Biltong, which is dried, salted, and spiced meat. Dried fruits are popular treats in the region. The Bantu people (who are natives from northern Africa) introduced modern agriculture, and they started growing crops such as the mealie (corn type), squash, and sweet potato. When the Dutch came to Southern Africa, they used the great soil to plant pumpkins, watermelons, cucumbers, pineapples, and potatoes.
- Customs from South Africa include common handshakes, hugs, and kisses
- When the natives are with tourists, they greet them with handshakes, maintain eye contact, and smile
- Some women don’t shake hands, so its better to wait for them to extend their hands, that is a permission signal
- If a man knows the woman, he can kiss her on the cheek instead of giving a handshake
- If you were invited to a South African’s house to have dinner you should get there on time and speak to the hosts ahead of time to know about exact details
The Xhosa are located in the Eastern Cape of south Africa. They traditionally lived by hunting, cattle herding, growing crops, wood working and iron working. They are now influenced by Western culture, but they still keep hold of their traditional ways. The ama Xhosa include a number of isiXhosa speaking ethnic groups such as; the Pondo and Thembu. The amaXhosa are very open to different cultures, they trade and interact with other societies. Now they serve as herbalists and healers for their communities.
The Kaapval craton is a large rock in the South of the region that is one of the most stable continental formations on the planet (even though it its over 2.6 billion years old). This rock gives the region of South Africa many resources, including diamonds and gold. Unfortunately competition for land between black and white people increased because everyone wanted the minerals that the craton provided.
The amaZulu are located in the NorthernKwaZulu-Natal. They are still very traditional; responsibilities are divided by gender. Men are responcible for building houses, manufacutring and maintaining weapons, raising cattle and farm work. Women have domestic responsibilities and they also plant crops near their household. The most interesting fact about them is that there are about eleven million isiZulu speakers.
20,000 years ago South Africa was occupied by a people called San. They have a smaller structure and lighter skin to fit in to the environment. They are a hunter-gatherer group, women gather and men hunt.Women provide 80 percent of the food eaten. Men hunted, make tools and weapons from wood and stone, make clothing and make musical instruments. Oirock paintings and rock carvings are really popular to this people, hey are extremely artistic.
South Africa is composed by many tribes; the amaXhosa, amaZulu, Sotho, Pedi, Tswana, Africaner and the San. Since there are so many, we have picked the three most important tribes.
There are many different styles of clothes, some people wear traditional clothing, some wear Western culture outfits and others wear something in the middle.
Cow tails are worn by men on upper arms and below the knees.
To cover a man's genitals, a front apron made from circular skin patches are worn
A rear apron made from calfskin is worn:
young men wear it knee length
older men wear it to their ankles
A headband is used by married men.
Men with a higher social power wear leopard skin.
A single maiden wears short grass skirts with beads whilst.
Zulu are famous for their beadwork.
An engaged woman covers her entire body to indicate that she is taken.
Married women use a white, red or black cloth over her cowhide skirt.
Over their breasts, they wear a colorful cover with a message only her husband understands.
A hat made from grass and cotton that is sewn into the hair is used.
South Africans have a wide variety of cultures, languages and religious beliefs. While they still hold strongly on to their traditional way, the Western culture influences them a lot.
Young girls may go around bare-breasted.
A tribal elder will be wrapped in his blanket, with his face covered in white clay.
Its all about the headpiece.
The more elaborate the hat, the older the person is.
Goatskin leggings are worn at a man’s first sacrificial killing of a goat.
Goatskin bags are used.
Maidens are draped with ochre-coloured blankets.
If a lady is married her head will be covered.
A lady has just married if her turban dips below eye level.
A long skirt, no slit in front and marriage bib with 2 aprons means the woman is a widow.
A necklace of turquoise beads connects a man to his ancestors
South African tribes work with arts and crafts a lot, they are very artistic.Tribes like the Zulu work with beads and other materials to make jewelry and other dexorations. They also craft their own weapons and instruments by using the technique of carving in harder materials, such as wood. In all the tribes it is very common for women to paint their houses before getting married. At a young age girls all ready start learning how to paint the houses for when they get older.
- Polygamy is allowed, but since women are against it, it's less common
- First Fruit Festival: people bring their first harvest of the year to their king, and it is very important to the Zulu tribe. It also is important because the people believe that it strengthens the King and his kingdom. The people use the ceremony to talk about current conflicts such as the high rate of people with HIV virus
- The Dance of the Maidens: encourages respect for girls in a colorful dancing celebration. It also keeps the tradition of keeping girls virgin until marriage.
For people from the outside, South African music may seem strange, but it plays an important role on the South African society. They have music for everything; work songs, lullabies, battle songs, wedding songs, songs of season, love songs, ritual songs,and religious music. They also have special dances for some events.
South Africa is a region with an enormous history, variety of culture and amazing geography. We are going to teach you the main points of the following categories; people, culture, history, geography and government.
Get into your groups and match the animal to the correct fact. The group with more correct answers wins...
Get into your groups and make a skit that includes the following:
- The words on your index card
- 1 Tradition
- 1 Custom
First group to finish WINS!
Reflection: If you could move to South Africa would you? Why or why not?
Use examples of at least four to support your answer:
South African culture is very diverse. There are many different tribes and Western culture has strongly impacted their traditional culture.
● Majority of South Africans are Christians
● now members from all ethnic groups are the Methodist, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Dutch Reformed churches
● large number of people follow independent African Christian churches
● vary in size from a few to millions of members
● faiths differ widely in orthodoxy or heterodoxy from traditional Christian beliefs
● they tend to be more open to aspects of indigenous culture and religion and to emphasize physical and spiritual healing
● Hindus, Muslims, Jews and Buddhists
● minority of South Africa’s population do not belong to any of the major religions
Depending on their religion the people have to dress a certain way, and act a certain way. There are also traditions, rules and rituals that have to be followed. In the catholic church, for example, you should go to church every Sunday. The government allows you to believe what you want, this causes the amount of religions to increase making South Africa a diverse place