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A Review of Washback and Its Pedagogical Implications

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Nese Demir

on 22 May 2014

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Transcript of A Review of Washback and Its Pedagogical Implications

Definitions of Washback
Backwash
The Definition of Washback in This Study
Macro Level (Bachman & Palmer, 1996)
beyond the classroom, including educational systems and society at large
Types of Washback
Positive Washback
Conclusion
A Review of Washback and Its Pedagogical Implications
Yi- Ching Pan


Pedagogical Implications
the beliefs of teachers are a critical factor in determining the washback effect teachers have become the sources of promoting positive washback or hindering negative washback (Spratt, 2005) teachers should be provided with in-service training and be familiar with a wide range of teaching methods (Watanbee, 2005).
VNU Journal of Science, Foreign Languages 25 (2009) 257-263
Washback
Hughes (1989):
"the effect of testing on teaching and learning"
Spolsky (1994):
"the unforeseen side-effects of testing and not the intended effects when the primary goal of examination is the control of curricula"
Biggs (1995):
"testing controls not only the curriculum but also teaching methods and students' learning strategies"
Alderson & Wall (1993) - Messick (1996):
the extent to which a test influences teachers and learners to do things they would not otherwise do
Bailey (1996):
"the influence of testing on teaching and learning"
Shoamy, et al. (1996):
"the connections between testing and learning"
Pearson (1998):
"Public examinations influence the attitudes, behaviors, and motivation of teachers, learners, and parents, and because examinations often come at the end of a course, this influence is seen working in a backward direction, hence the term, washback."
Cheng (2005):
" an intended or unintended direction of function of curriculum change on aspects of teaching and learning by means of a change of public examinations"
Similar Concept Terms to Washback
1) Test Impact
Bachman & Palmer (1996):
individuals, educational systems, society
2) Systematic Validity
Fredericksen & Collins (1989)
3) Consequential Validity
Messick (1989, 1996)
4) Curriculum-alignment
Shoamy at al. (1996)
5) Washback validity
Morrow (1986)
Wall (1997):
individuals, policies and practices within the classroom, the school, the educational system, and society
McNamara (2004):
community (including the school)
Andrews (2004):
teaching, learning, the educational system, and the various stake holders in the education process
the extent to which the test meets the needs of students/ educators/ researchers/ administrators/ anyone who uses the test results in the future

value of the relationship between the test and any associated teaching
the curriculum is modified according to the test results
Various influences of tests within and beyond the classroom:
- the use of tests
- the impacts of testing on test takers and teachers
- the examination results by decision makers
- the potential misuse/abuse/unintended usage of tests
"the effects of instructional changes caused by tests"

(curricular and instructional changes are made to foster cognitive skills that tests measure)
1.

"All in all, it's the teacher who has the most power to turn it into positive or negative washback."

Do you agree with the statement above?
How can we promote positive washback among BUSEL students (or hinder negative feedback) ?



Micro Level (Bailey, 1996)
"the effects that a test has on teaching and learning"
to investigate the test washback in the school, the educational system, and society
to investigate the test washback in the classroom
Negative Washback
Classroom Setting:
Educational/ Societal System:
Classroom Setting:
Educational/ Societal System:
1)
teachers and learners motivated to achieve teaching/learning goals (Anderson & Wall, 1993)

2)
Good tests can be utilized/designed as beneficial teaching-learning activities (Pearson, 1988)

3)

A creative and innovative test can advantageously result in a syllabus change/ a new syllabus (Davis, 1985)
1)
Achieving the goals of teaching and learning, e.g. the introduction of new textbooks and new curricula (Shoamy, 1992; Wall & Anderson, 1993; Cheng, 2005)

2)
Tests are encouraged to promote the idea of life-long learning and encourage people to learn English (Language Testing and Training Center, 2008)
1)
narrowing of content in the curriculum (exam oriented student learning)

2)

teachers tend to ignore subjects that are not directly related to exams

3)
tests may not create a correspondence between learning principles and course objectives

4)

anxious teachers (i.e. feeling that their job performances is assessed by students' test scores)

5)
stressful teachers (i.e. public displays of classroom scores)

6)
increases the number of paid tutorials which prepare students for exams

7)
causes teachers to use methods/materials that are compatible with standardized test formats

1)
promote political agendas

2)
seize influence and control of educational systems
If we are the ones who prepare tests...
If we are responsible for helping our students pass a test...
2.
Recall your own experiences with assessment as a learner. How did you feel? What do you think you learned from the assessment experience, and how did others feel about the methods used? Give examples to the methods with positive effects and negative effects.



teachers themselves should conduct the changes and have the necessary skills to adapt the changes.

Introduction
Definitions of Washback
Similar Concept Terms to Washback
Definition of Washback in This Study
Types of Washback
Pedagogical Implications
Conclusion
Outline
Full transcript