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Earthquakes

This project was done for my ALJ research task.
by

Marcus Widvey

on 26 March 2015

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Transcript of Earthquakes

Unistructural
Define - Natural disasters and man made disasters

Natural disaster is an act of weather or earth-related events that cause destruction. Natural Disasters occur unexpectedly. Such as a volcanic eruption, can be caused by an earthquake but it can also be caused by man from explosives or something else.

Man-made disasters are disasters that are related to events caused by actions of man and probably could have been prevented. Such as a wildfire by man can have been caused by someone topping a cigarette butt or something else.

Examples- Some natural disasters are earthquakes, tornadoes
etc. Because they are caused by human nature.

Some man made disasters are oil spills, nuclear power plant disfunction, this is because they are cause by the acts
of man.







Multistructural
2011 Tohoku Earthquake Effects

16,000 deaths, and 6,000 people injured.
Jobs and homes ruined
Billions of dollars spent to repair the damage
Many trees and animals destroyed
Tourism decreased in Japan
Much money was spent on repairing roads
Many jobs were destroyed and due to this, many trades to and from Japan had decreased.
The Fukushima Power Plant nearly blew up, this power plant supplies a third of Japan's electricity.
They are still repairing the damage.
Many families left the country
many people in Japan wouldn't feel safe anymore
Japan would be getting a lot of bad and good media reports.
Trading industries would need to have been stopped, between countries.
the earthquake would damage a lot of Japanese Ancient underground drawings.



Fault plane
The first step of an earthquake is when the fault plane ruptures fault blocks move

Crust
Stress Levels
The stress levels of the earthquake reach the rock strength
Displacement
The ground shows permanent displacement, like cracks on buildings, and roads.

Stages of an Earthquake
Effects of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

If affected the environment, social life, economics, emotionally, and Globally.

There were 16,00 deaths and 6,00 people severely injured.

This affected the tourism of Japan because less people wanted to travel to Japan because of the disaster.

Many people didn’t feel safe in Japan and wanted to move out of Japan

Many homes, buildings and roads were destroyed

It cost Japan 15-36 billion dollars to repair the damage

Earthquakes
2011 Tohoku Earthquake

The earthquake was scaled at 9 magnitude, which triggered a 40 metre Tsunami.

The Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant, which was triggered by the earthquake.

Residents were told to move 20 km away from the Power plant, but the United Stated told them to move 80 km away.


Glossary
Tectonic Plates
-The Earth's crust is made up of plates that are constantly moving and crashing into each other.
Power Plant
-an engine or other apparatus which provides power for a machine, building, etc.
Ring Of Fire
-it's an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean
Tohoku-
The Tōhoku region consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.



Magnitude
- Magnitude is how you measure an earthquakes power and energy. The closer it is to 10 the bigger it is.
Meltdown
-the type of energy realeased by an earthquake
Reactors-an apparatus or structure in which fissile material can be made to undergo a controlled, self-sustaining nuclear reaction with the consequent release of energy.



By Marcus Widvey
Natural Disasters
Man made disasters
Same
forces of nature
Don't happen often
When it happens unexpectedly
can damage a whole city
Cannot be fixed, because
it happens naturally.
Can take up to months
repair damage.
Bigger in magnitude.
When man aren't prepared
for it.
Natural disaster are called
that only when it affects
man.
Human made action
most of the time is a wildfire.
We need to take responsibility.
Most of the time is caused by camping.
Smaller in magnitude.
When man are prepared for it.
When something happens on purpose or by accident.
Both are disasters.
Both can destroy lives.
Both kill people.
Both happen around the world.


An amazing 116 countries and 28 international organisations had donated and offered assistance to Japan.

There was an estimated 7 billion NZD donated to the people affected by the disaster.

Many countries donated money and relief workers, in these there were New Zealand, Australia, China and some others.

The one that I think stood out was North Korea, Kim Jong Un donated US500,000, from his own salary to Japan.

Many famous people donated money like Lady Gaga, Black eyed peas, Jackie Chan, Sandra Bullock, Gwen Stefani, Queen Elizabeth, Shakira and some others.

Some of the companies that supported Japan by sending money and people to help were Microsoft, Nike, Toyota, FedEx, Walt Disney, Sony, Samsung, Soft bank and some others, soft bank donated an amazing US12,500,000.

New Zealand donated 2 million dollars to go to Japan.

Relational
The support that was offered to Japan were people rebuilding houses, getting shelter for the millions of homeless.

Food for the starving, military support

Socks, clothing, shoes bought in for Japan

Military support set up tents, and made sure residents were kept warm and safe. And were given food and water

Since the Tsunami came after the earthquake, many sewage systems were destroyed. The sewage system was not able to hold the gallons of water coming through Tohoku.

Houses were destroyed and families.

The four reactors of the Fukushima Power plant automatically shut down, causing a third of the countries electricity to be switched off.

The Power plant was really close to meltdown, which would’ve affected Japan way more.


Bibliography
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/earthquake-profile/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake
http://www.vox.com/2014/8/26/6069921/watch-what-a-6-magnitude-earthquake-does-in-china-vs-the-us
Google Images/Earthquakes/Earthquakes Japan
Yahoo
Answers.com
Hands.org
Closer Look at Earthquakes book
Earthquakes book
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_T%C5%8Dhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami

Extended Abstract
My Earthquake model contains the important things that you need in an earthquake shelter. My shelter contains.

Rope
Sleeping bag
many litres of water
torches
Gas cylinder
Radio
Walkie talkie
Satellite phone
Boat
Food
Hard food
Baked beans
Compass
My Earthquake Shelter
(Then the first layer of the earth) the crust begins to bend elastically along the fault

Then seismic waves are created by jerky slip on fault, from these waves this is how the earthquake strength is measured.
Magnitude
My shelter has the necessaries that a shelter needs to survive in for weeks

radio for communication
compass for direction
boat for fishing or moving my shelter
30-60 litres of water
baked beans for food
non stick pans for cooking
firewood for keeping warm
batteries for torches
torches for light
gas cylinder for cooking
weapons for hunting or safety
other foods as well
shelter made out of lightwood meaning that it can float
tent fabric is gas residence
military vehicle for transportation
signaller for help
survival kit for aiding accidents or treatment
rope for tying on something
Shelter
100L Water
Cup/Mug
Fire
knife
Stove
nonstick fry pan
Rope
First aid kit
Fish
plate
Bowl

Bowls
Fry pan
Pineapple
Sushi
Weapon
Rice
Baked Beans
Gas Cylinder
Sleeping Bag
Full transcript