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King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
Transcript of King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
At the time, Spain was not a united nation. The two strongest kingdoms they had were Aragon and Castile.
When the king and queen married in 1469, Spain became united and had much more power than before.
Religious prejudice was a big thing in Spain. If you were seen practicing a different religion than what you should believe in, you were reported immediately.
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella centered their life on having power and authority over as much land as they could.
After completing all their goals, they decided to get involved with Christopher Columbus and the discovery of the New World.
Jean Mariejol was a French historian that was born in Antibes on May 22, 1855. He was a scholarship student at the University of Aix-en-Provence studying History. Growing up he was very poor and had to support both his mother and sister by teaching school. Jean had many successes throughout his life. He was licensed in literature and became a college professor in Draguignan. He also taught at a high school in Macon. Some of his works include The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella, Catherine de Medics, Un Lettre Italien À La Cour D'espagne (1488-1526), and Histoire De France Depuis Les Origines Jusqu'à La Révolution. Jean passed away in 1934 in his birthplace.
Henry Sedgwick was not only an author, but also a lawyer born in Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard University in 1882 and studied law in Boston. As years went by, he became an author and wrote biographies over Issac Thomas Hecker, Henry of Navarre, Marcus Aurelius, and Alfred de Musset. Some of his works include A Short History About Italy, Spain, Father Hecker and Dante. He passed away on January 5th, 1957 at the age of 95.
William Hickling Prescott was born in Salem, Massachusetts. He was a historian that attended Harvard at the age of 15. He had a hard time in his academics, but showed intelligence in Latin and Greek. He studied late Renaissance Spain and the early Spanish Empire. He became one of the most successful historians in the 19th century. Some of his works include The History of the Conquest of Mexico (1843), A History of the Conquest of Peru (1847), and History of the Reign of Phillip II (1856–1858). Also, there have been four biographies of Prescott written.William passed away January of 1859 due to a stroke.
The Edict of Expulsion of the Jews
The Edict was a charter that said no Jews were allowed in Spain anymore. No matter if you were rich or poor, female or male, all unbaptized Jews should depart by the end of July. If you were a Jew, you had to leave Spain. The Edict was signed at Granada by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella on March 3, 1492. The only way a Jew could stay in Spain was if they converted to Christianity. This is part of what the edict said...
"Therefore, we, with the counsel and advice of prelates, great noblemen of our kingdoms, and other persons of learning and wisdom of our Council, having taken deliberation about this matter, resolve to order the said Jews and Jewesses of our kingdoms to depart and never to return or come back to them or to any of them. And concerning this we command this our charter to be given, by which we order all Jews and Jewesses of whatever age they may be, who live, reside, and exist in our said kingdoms and lordships, as much those who are natives as those who are not, who by whatever manner or whatever cause have come to live and reside therein, that by the end of the month of July next of the present year, they depart from all of these our said realms and lordships, along with their sons and daughters, menservants and maidservants, Jewish familiars, those who are great as well as the lesser folk, of whatever age they may be, and they shall not dare to return to those places, nor to reside in them, nor to live in any part of them, neither temporarily on the way to somewhere else nor in any other manner, under pain that if they do not perform and comply with this command and should be found in our said kingdom and lordships and should in any manner live in them, they incur the penalty of death..."
Christopher Columbus's Journal
In 1492, Columbus left on a voyage to the New World. On his journey, he would write journal entries of everything he would discover. He would write an entry every few days. He even said the time he left when he started. As you read the entries, you become very informed about everything that happened and what he saw on the new land. This is the entry he wrote the day he left...
"Friday, 3 August 1492. Set sail from the bar of Saltes at 8 o'clock, and proceeded with a strong breeze till sunset, sixty miles or fifteen leagues south, afterwards southwest and south by west, which is the direction of the Canaries."
You can see how descriptive he was in this entry. All of his entries were like this. This is why we know so much about the people he encountered and how the land looked like in the New World.
The King & Queen
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella were two well respected monarchs. Even though they were cousins they got married in 1469. Isabella became Queen of Castile when Henry IV died in 1474. Ferdinand became the King of Aragón in 1479. One of the things they are most known for is that they only wanted Christians to live in Spain. They had most of the control of the country and wanted everything their eay. These two Catholic monarchs dedicated their time to having control of their country and other land. One of the most important discoveries they are remembered by is Christopher Columbus's voyage to the "New World". I focused my research mostly on what they accomplished in the 1400's.
Mariejol, Jean, and Benjamin Keen. "The Spanish Inquisition." The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers UP, 1961. Print.
Sedgwick, Henry Dwight. "Contemporary Judgments on Ferdinand and Isabella." Spain: A Short History of Its Politics, Literature, and Art from Earliest Times to the Present. Boston: Little, Brown, 1925. Print.
Prescott, William Hickling. "Expulsion of the Jews." History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. Ed. C. Harvey Gardiner. Heritage: New York, 1962. Print.
Columbus, Christopher. "Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.
"The Edict of Expulsion of the Jews - 1492 Spain." The Edict of Expulsion of the Jews - 1492 Spain. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Royalty That Started it All
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
By Elizabeth Rivera
The Spanish Inquisition
The Inquisition in Spain was a way of achieving similarity of religion throughout all the people. It demanded its attention on the Jews and the Muslims. Religious prejudice was very intense and seeing Jews side by side with Christians was unacceptable. Ferdinand and Isabella believed if everyone had the same belief, it would keep them from having civil unrest and other conflicts. They believed it would keep Spain peaceful. Jews were seen as enemies to the Spanish nation. All of this hatred toward the Jews was because of their intelligence and financial ability. These traits would win the Jews over anybody else. The hatred was so strong that in 1473 the Condestable Don Miguel Lucas was murdered for having sympathy for the Jews. This wasn't the only bloody event that happened. Many more continued. People were also imprisoned. There were so many thrown in, that no more of them fit in prison anymore. Ferdinand and Isabella signed the edict and gave Jews six months to leave Spain. In those months, Jews would sell their stuff to get ready to leave. At one point they were excluded from using gold and silver, so they had to bargain off their belongings in exchange for something else. Most of them though, decided to convert to Christianity for their family. This all ended in 1492 when Granada was captured. From one hundred and sixty thousand to eight hundred thousand of Jews were expelled from Spain.
Christopher Columbus & the New World
After the Inquisition, King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella were left with nothing else to do. Their goals were met & everyone was happy. Isabella then turned her attention to establishing a sea route to Asia. At the time, Columbus believed that sailing West would be a much faster route to get to India. He went to Portugal to share his idea, but was rejected. This is when Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to pay Columbus's voyage to the New World. In 1492, Columbus set sail with three different ships called the Pinta, the Santa Maria, and the Nina. He made many discoveries and went back to Spain to report his findings.
" At two o'clock in the morning the land was discovered, at two leagues' distance; they took in sail and remained under the square-sail lying to till day, which was Friday, when they found themselves near a small island, one of the Lucayos, called in the Indian language Guanahani. Presently they descried people, naked, and the Admiral landed in the boat, which was armed, along with Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and Vincent Yanez his brother, captain of the Nina. The Admiral bore the royal standard, and the two captains each a banner of the Green Cross, which all the ships had carried; this contained the initials of the names of the King and Queen each side of the cross, and a crown over each letter Arrived on shore, they saw trees very green many streams of water, and diverse sorts of fruits. "
"Saturday, 13 October. At daybreak great multitudes of men came to the shore, all young and of fine shapes, very handsome; their hair not curled but straight and coarse like horse-hair, and all with foreheads and heads much broader than any people I had hitherto seen; their eyes were large and very beautiful; they were not black, but the color of the inhabitants of the Canaries, which is a very natural circumstance, they being in the same latitude with the island of Ferro in the Canaries. They were straight-limbed without exception, and not with prominent bellies but handsomely shaped. They came to the ship in canoes, made of a single trunk of a tree, wrought in a wonderful manner considering the country; some of them large enough to contain forty or forty-five men, others of different sizes down to those fitted to hold but a single person. They rowed with an oar like a baker's peel, and wonderfully swift. If they happen to upset, they all jump into the sea, and swim till they have righted their canoe and emptied it with the calabashes they carry with them. They came loaded with balls of cotton, parrots, javelins, and other things too numerous to mention; these they exchanged for whatever we chose to give them."
Historian's Thoughts about Ferdinand & Isabella
One of the things that caught my attention overall was seeing what historians thought about Ferdinand & Isabella. Here are some quotes from different important historians.
Machiavelli, in Chapter XXI of The Prince , says:
"In our time, for example, there is Ferdinand of Aragon, the King of Spain. He may be considered a self made potent, because from having been a weak king he is now renowned as the foremost sovereign of Christendom; and if hes deeds be considered, they will be found great and at times very remarkable."
Guicciardini, in his report to his government, he says:
"The feats that Ferdinand has accomplished, his words, his ways, and his general reputation prove that he is an extremely sagacious man. He is very secret, and unless obliged to does not communicate important matters; he could not be more patient. "
"I must know here a paradox in this kingdom of Castile, for the Queen is king, and the King is her servant. This is so completely so that the nobility fear the Queen more than the King, who in whatever he does merely carries out the Queen's orders and wishes. If the King wishes to send off some letters, he cannot affix the seal of State without the Queen's permission."
"As to her figure, stature, and beauty, whatever I have said of the King can be said of her. Whatever in the King expressed dignity, in the Queen was also clothed with grace and charm; the presence of both was touched with majesty, but in the opinion of most people the Queen was the handsomer, and had a quicker intelligence, a larger heart, and a more serious nature.
What I Learned
Never had I heard about Ferdinand and Isabella in my education. The first I heard of them was this year in class. When I learned they were the rulers of Spain and that they were cousins that married, my attention was grabbed. I instantly wanted to learn more about them. This is why I specifically chose this topic. I wanted to complete my assignment, but also enjoy it as I did it and I honestly did. There was so much information about them in all of my sources, which I loved! All my sources had information that I enjoyed reading. I don't regret one bit of the topic I chose. This project as a whole was a lot of work, but I enjoyed it to the fullest. Never had history caught my attention like it has this year.
Thank you Mrs. Deering for your great teaching and class!
This primary source does match up to the secondary source. It connects with it because it has the same information as it did in the secondary source. The secondary source goes into more detail though about everything the edict caused among the people in Spain.
This primary source does connect with one of my secondary sources. In one of my secondary sources, it just explains the basics of Columbus's voyage. This primary source has so much more detail about Columbus's discoveries and has word for word of what he wrote.