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Greek Philosophy & Achievements
Transcript of Greek Philosophy & Achievements
469 BC -399 BC
phila = to love
sophia = wisdom
Philosophy = to love wisdom
No writings of his own.
His students recorded his teachings after his death.
Greek Philiosophy was active for over 1000 years
At first Greek philisophers are thought down upon because they use logic and science to explain the things happening in their world. These things had been explained before using gods.
A hero of war when he was young.
Fought in the Persian & Pelopennesian wars.
Way to gain knowledge is by asking questions
Gained support among young Athenian men. City became concerned that people were questioning long held beliefs and ideas.
During the Pelopennesian War Socrates begins to go about the city and question its institutions.
Put on Trial for:
Corrupting the Youth & Neglecting the gods
Found Guilty - When asked what his punishment should be he responded, "Food and money for the rest of my life."
Put to death by drinking Hemlock juice
He didn't fit the Atheinan mold Unclean, fat, unconcerned with beauty
Wealthy educated man.
Served in the army of Athens.
Became a student of Socrates.
After Socrates died he traveled to Egypt and Italy.
Wrote many books about Socrates
He returned to Athens and founded the Academy.
This became the first university in the world.
17 years old Aristotle comes to the Academy in Athens.
Became a teacher at the Academy for 23 years.
Personal tutor of Alexander the Great.
Returned to Athens and setup another school, the Lyceum
Known as the "Master of them that Know"
Expert on - Logic, Physics, Astronomy, Zoology, Theology, Politics, Economics, and Poetry
Wrote over 200 books
First to classify plants and animals
Developed the scientific method
Greek Philosophy changed the way people thought about and perceived the world around them.
Astronomer and mathmatician
First to predict an eclipse
Suggested that sailors use North star to guide them
His Big Idea - Everything is made of water
Theory was wrong, but idea was monumental
Questioned the myths and the gods.
Explained where wind and rain come from.
Described the natural causes that make thunder and lightning.
Made other people mad when he said it wasn't Zeus hurling lighting bolts.
First to suggest that humans evolved.
He said we came from fish like creatures.
Founded the science of Geography & Astronomy
Explained eclipses, metors, rainbows, and the sun.
First to state that the light of the moon is actually just a reflection of the sun.
Founder of Trigonometry
Created first accurate star map
Charted 850 stars
Theorized that the earth is spinning on its axis
Greatest ancient astronomer
First to layout accurate model of our solar system.
He was the first to put the sun at the center.
During his life his ideas were rejected.
People still believed that the earth stood still and the rest of the universe revolved around it.
Identified relative sizes of the planets.
Mathmatician, poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, musician.
Invented Latitude & Longitude.
Proved the earth was round.
Calcuated circumfrence of earth.
Amazingly within 240 miles of what our modern technologies say the circumfrence is today.
Accuratly measured distance from sun to earth.
Invented leap year to make up for inaccuracies in the calendar.
Created a fairly accurate map of the world.
First to study fossils.
Hypothesized that the world was once covered in water.
Denied the attributes of the Greek gods.
Believe that there was only one true God.
One of the first monotheist.
Thought the Greeks put to much emphasis on athletics.
Developed the idea that everything is made up of atoms.
Known as the "father of modern science"
Understood the idea of galaxies in the universe.
First teacher of virtue.
Believe man was the measure of all things.
"Lover of Wisdom"
Believed everything in universe was mathematical.
Developed the Pythagorem Therom.
Able to figure out the length of sides on a right triangle.
A squared + B squared = C squared
Brillant inventor, astronomer, engineer, and physicist.
Developed the principal of levers.
"Give me a place to stand and I'll move the World."
Calcualted Pi = 3.14
Diplacement Theory - Determining volume of irregular shaped object. He was asked to see if a gold crown had any fake gold in it. He had noticed how his bathwater overflowed when he climbed in. He realized a crown of solid gold would diplace more water when put into a tub then one with fake gold. The Archimedes' principle states that a body immersed in fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced
Ran naked through the sheets shouting "Eureka" which in Greek means 'I have found it'
Archimedies Death Ray - Used polished bronze shields to reflect sun and burn attacking ships. There have bee n many doubts about Archimedes weapon of the death Ray. However in 2005 the Death Ray was proved and tested by a University class (MIT). Using over one hundred mirrors,they made a dummy profile of ship with 5 inch thick wood which ignited after focusing all the mirrors to a specific point on the ship. this experiment was then carried out again on a real boat in the water with the help of the 'mythbusters'.Thus proving Archimedes death ray as no longer a theory but a definitely possibility that this 'death ray' tactic was used against the roman ships in Syracuse.
Archimedies Screw - Machine used to raise water up hill. Stiil in use all over the world. It is also said that Archimedes built the Syracusia ship, which was the largest vessel of its time and capable of transporting 600 passengers. Since a ship of this size would leak a considerable amount of water through the hull, the Archimedes' screw was purportedly developed in order to remove the bilge water. The screw was a machine with a revolving screw shaped blade inside a cylinder. It was turned by hand, and could also be used to transfer water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation canals
Archimedies Claw - Device created to grab ships and shake them violently. Similar to a crane. It would hook and lift the ships out of water.
Archimedies Catapult - Huge device used for shooting large projectiles.
During the First Punic War, he also invented the odometer, a device that dropped a ball after each mile was traveled, to measure distance.
Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second Punic War, when Roman forces under General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the city of Syracuse after a two-year-long siege. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to come and meet General Marcellus but he declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem. The soldier was enraged by this, and killed Archimedes with his sword. General Marcellus was reportedly angered by the death of Archimedes, as he considered him a valuable scientific asset and had ordered that he not be harmed.
The last words attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my circles"
"Father of Scientific Medicine"
Traveled through Greece healing the sick
Believed disease was natural
He thought it was disrespectful to the gods to claim they would deliberately cause disease.
Started 1st Medical School
Observe and record stages of illness
Hippocratic Oath - honor teachers, do best for patients, never poison, and keep secrets of patients.
Doctors today must still pledge the Hippocratic Oath