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Lowenfeld’s 5 stages of Creative Development

A walk through of how a child develops artistically as they age.

Katie Nelson

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Lowenfeld’s 5 stages of Creative Development

Stage What are these 5 stages? Lowenfeld's 5 Stages of Development! Schematic
Stage Preschematic
Stage Dawning
Realism Pseudo
Realistic Now what are the 5 stages all about? Katie
Nelson Scribble Stage Age 2-4 Here we see horizontal scribbling marks that are still uncontrolled. Children at this stage are developing basic motor skills, so there is little control with mark making. The child is simply enjoying the ability to move their arms across the page and watch marks appear, developing aesthetic behavior. As children gain more control their marks turn from horizontal lines to curved lines, circles and squiggles. In this drawing controlled mark making is much more evident with the development of curved and circular lines. Pseudo-Realistic Stage Dawning Realism Stage Schematic Stage What happens in the Schematic stage? What happens in the Pre-Schematic Stage? Age 4 - 7 Pre-Schematic Stage During this stage conscious creation first begins to appear. The curved lines from the scribble stage begin to transform into figures that have meaning to the child. The first forms are usually circles with extended lines or "tadpole figures", meant to represent people or animals. With little understanding of space, these objects are placed without much thought and appear to float. Since the child can now tell stories with these images, symbols constantly change as their experiences change. In these images again we see the "tadpole figure" but the symbols have changed slightly. Squares and triangles have been added In this image we can see the characteristic "tadpole figures" of this stage with the circle body and extending lines for arms and legs. Also, the figures float on the picture plane, showing little knowledge of space. Age 7-9 Age 12 + Age 9-12 What happens in the Dawning realism stage? What happens in the Pseudo-Realistic Stage? What happens in the Scribble Stage? At this stage a child now has a set idea of how to portray different objects. They also develop a way of showing which objects are most important in their minds by emphasizing their size, like making an object larger then the rest. A sense of spacial relationships is starting to be developed between objects. Now the child is beginning to place their forms accordingly, more often the objects sit on a base line and no longer float. Also, the colors appear more "natural" in general. In these two images we see a sense of hierarchical understanding with the larger and smaller objects showing a range of importance. This drawing shows the understanding of spacial relationships when putting objects on a baseline. This image is a great representation of a defined way of portraying an object. The child definitely has a grasp on how an owl is supposed to look in their mind, since they drew multiple owls and they all look similar. When the child reaches this stage schematic realism is no longer enough to express reality in their drawings. There is much more detail for individual parts of their forms, and they are increasingly more critical of their work. The child begins to compare their work to others and now has a set view of drawing things the "right" way. Their sense of space has greatly improved, now they understand how to overlap objects, create a ground plane and also a horizon line rather than a base line. Children at this stage are also becoming gender conscious, grouping themselves into same sex friendships and developing genderized drawing subjects like ponies and flowers for girls, and cars and super-heroes for boys. In this image we see a great understanding of space with the use of a horizon line, ground plane, and a lovely display of overlapping figures. The placement choice of the objects, and their size as well, gives a great sense of depth. Here again we see the use of overlapping objects and an understanding of depth. However, there is much greater attention to detail in this drawing and the use of space is at a much higher level then the previous stages. This drawing shows the use of genderized subject matter. Here you can definitely tell the child who drew this was a girl, due to the horse, rainbow color scheme and the volleyball. Children in this stage have a greater visual awareness of the things around them. Realism is much more prevalent now since they are increasingly more conscious of details and proportion. Also, the expression in the child's images have taken on more three-dimensional and adult characteristics, like adding shadow and multiple different tints and tones. Sadly, art at this stage is either a hit or miss for some children. They are easily discouraged if their art isn't realistic enough and then loose interest all together. The level of realism in the drawing is wonderful. The use of shadow and the different tints and tones show a great understanding of color and detail. This is a great example of art from child who is very visually aware of their surroundings. This drawing shows great understanding of proportion. Drawing facial features is difficult and getting the right size, distance and shape are all details that need to be mastered for correct proportion. This is a great examples of three-dimensionality and adult attention to detail. The shape and depth of the room is dimensionally correct and the wine and glass are slightly more adult in image representation. Lowenfeld's 5 stages of development is put in place to categorize a child's artistic development as they age. By advancing through the Scribble stage all the way to the Psuedorealistic stage, a child gains a whole new concept of realism at each level. I want children as they grow to have a successful and stimulating artistic experience. I will use this information to better my understanding of how a child develops artistically and to learn ways I can aid them in furthering their artistic knowledge so their more prepared for the next level or even ahead of it. From analyzing each of these levels I can now put the knowledge into more effective lesson planning and create activities that will challenge, educate and excite my students. How I will use this knowledge... A Special Thank You to Viktor Lowenfeld! Sources! http://vi.sualize.us/art_children_paintings_photos_painting_multicolores_kids_picture_iH6U.html
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2195/Lowenfeld-Viktor-1903-1960.html *Art is in the Heart!* Thank you! Viktor Lowenfeld was born in Linz, Austria, and attended the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. In 1947 his book "Creative and Mental Growth" was published and became the most influential textbook in art education. The book describes the characteristics of child art at each stage of development and talks about types of art media and activities for each age. The stages are scribble, pre-schematic, schematic, dawning realism/gang age, pseudo-realistic/age of reasoning, and period of decision/crisis of adolescence. He saw the free expression of children in artistic media as necessary for the healthy growth of the individual. Emotional or mental disturbance results when children are prevented from creating art, either by a loss of self-confidence or by the imposition of adult concepts of so-called “good art.” Lowenfeld wrote about the similarity of creativity in the arts with that of the sciences, suggesting that general creativeness might transfer from the arts.
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