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New France.

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Patricia (:

on 16 September 2012

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Transcript of New France.

New France. The new comers:
-1530s France began to send Explorer's to find new land.
-The area around St. Lawrence is what the french explored.
-They did not know about the harsh winter climate, what crops will or will not survive, they survived on killing and eating wildlife.
-They didn't know if the first nations people would welcome them.
-They relied on the land for needs.(food, shelter, transportation, and medicine.)
-They understood and respected the environment.
-The FIV had a societal structure that revered elders and relied on for judgement and leadership.
-Some FIV had matriarchal society(traced theri ancestors their mothers and the oldest would be responsible of the clan)
-The Iroquois confederacy is one o fhte world's oldest democratic societies.
-They also believed in spirituality od hte creator fro plants they harvested. Jacques Cartier: -In 1534 Francois I Sent Jacques Cartier To find two things. (A ship to the orient to allow traders to import silk and fur, and gems and metals such as gold to make riches.
-In three weeks Cartier arrived in Newfoundland whish was already known to explorers then thye found prince Edward Island and The Baie de Chaleur.
-In late July he set a loge cross France claim to his new land.
-In 1535-1536, Cartier explored the St.Lawrence searching for a path to the orient.
-Donnaconna told him of kingdom saquenay, where there were special metals, golden hair people possessed these metals.
-If Cartier made friends with well established St.Lawrence Iroquois at Hochelaga that might threaten Donnaconna's influence on France and New france.
-When Cartier was in Stadocona Almost 110 crew member became sick with scurvy.
-They then learned to make tea from the northern white cedar leaves to cure scurvy but only 25 managed to survive. Samuel De Champlain: -Like Cartier but a century later.
-Originally set out to find riches for France and a route to the orient.
-From 1603 to his death in 1635 he crossed the Atlantic Ocean many times.
-Skills as Cartographer(Map-Maker) provided detaled map of the Atlantic coast, the Waterway of St.Lawrence and it's tributaries,a dn of a view of hte interior continent it had.
-Initial Voyage: Explored coastal regions of eastern north America.
-Found settlement in Quebec city, first permanent settlement of the Europeans in what was to become Canada.
-In 1609 he joined the Huron people to attack near a lake that would eventually hear his name.
-Chamlain use his arquebus(A type of rifle) in this attack.
-Over the nest 20 years he worked tirelessly to buil a colony fro france.
-By his death he established the basis of a successful colony, and his legacy as the "Father of New France" was secured. Soldiers. -In 1665s, the Carigan Salieres regiment arrived to defend teh colony from five nations Iriquois.
-Regiment consists of 1000 soldiers and 80 officers.
-Regiment built three forst along the rochelieu River.
-After series of battles with the Iroquois New France signed a peace treaty with then in 1667. Heroes and Villains: -Champlain sent 18 year old Etienne Brule to travel among the Huron people in 1610.
-He established close relations with the french and the Huron.
-He annoyed the Iroquois who were traditional enemies with the Huron.
-He then annoyed Champlain by supporting the British.
-Champlain said Brule had betrayed France, So Brule was no longer welcomed there.
-he returned to live with the Huron, but got captured by teh Iroquois later. Religious figures -Christianity was Europe's only major religion until the 1500s.
-Religious performers such as Martin Luther in Germany, John Calvin in Switzerland, and John Knox in Scotland challenged the Roman catholic Church.
-They set up separate churches.
-Reformers and their churches were called "protestants" because they protested against some of the beliefs and practices of the roman catholic church.
-France remained a mainly catholic country, although there were some protestants especially in the eastern part near Switzerland. The Jesuit Priests. -Leading religious orders that sent missionaries to New France was the society of Jesus commonly called Jesuit.
-In 1611 the first jesuit arrived in new france, They had two immediate goals in mind, To spread the roman catholic region to the first nations people and to establish school for boys.
-They established school in some settlements and sent missionaries to fidn first nations.
-In 1934 Jesuit took their missionaries to Huron people which lived in french settlements.
-Their plans were to build a agricultural and missionary center near major canoe routes.
-But Iroquois were enemies of the Huron, and the Jesuit were afraid war might break out.
-In 1639 construction of sainte-marie began.
-It had high walls and strong gates made of wood.
-In 1648 the Iroquois attacked the Huron and about 5 Jesuit had been killed.
The Ursuline Nuns. -In 1619, Marie Martin was a 20 year old widow with a 6 month old son.
-Her husband had been a silk merchant but his business was failing.
-In 1932 she decided to join the convent of St.Ursula to become a nun.
-In 1639 her and 2 other ursuline sisters arrived in Quebec.
-She died in 1692
-Before Ursuline, there were only boys school in New France to train boys to be lawyers, doctors or priests and subjects like Latin, math, philosophy, and religion.
-Ursuline established convents and schools for girls, In New France both first Nations girls and daughters of settlers.
-These schools taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and homemaking.
-It was expected that when they graduate they become nuns, wives, or mothers.
The Fur Traders. -Beaver fur was made especially good for hats, and they were in demand in Europe.
-The fur trade was highly regulated. Until the 1663, the company of the hundreds Associate, a private company controlled in New France by the name of the king.
-Only agents licensed by the company could legally trade with the first nations.
-The trappers and hunters brought furs to the regions of present day Montreal, Quebec City, and Trois-Rivieres, where the agents exchanged furs for hatchets, metal pots and other supplies.
-The coureurs de bois were traders. who left the colony to trade directly with the trappers and hunters.
-In 1656 the first coureurs de bois bought a huge load of pelts back to New France.
-Medard chouart des groseilliers and Nicholas Forget arrived with 50 canoes crammed with beaver pelts.
-In 1663, King Louis XIV took total control of New France.
-In the 1670's there were 300-400 coureurs de bois who were away from New France on a long-term basis.
-They only needed 20 000kg of pelt each year, but the coureurs de bois bought in way more than that, so the king decided to make an end to the coureurs de bois.
Seigneurs and Seigneuries. -Seigneurs were men who had won the king's favor.
-They might have been soldiers or supporters to the king in France.
-Then the king would award them by granting them a Seigneurie in New France.
-These were large areas of land. (Usually 10km by 5km)
-The Seigneur could keep a large area of land for himself and his family but had to get farm families to settle in the rest.
-How the Seigneurie was laid out: Was set beside a river to provide water for farming and personal use, fro transportation for canoe and for fishing.
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