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The Major Battles and Figures in the War of 1812

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Ben Lewis

on 14 March 2013

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Transcript of The Major Battles and Figures in the War of 1812

Important Leaders Major Land Battles Naval Battles The Battle of Queenston Heights The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle of the War of 1812. The US forces included 900 regular soldiers,and 2,650 militia. The British sent in 1,300 regualars, militia, and Native Americans. The battle began with Major General Isaac Brock sending Major Thomas Evans to the other side of the Niagara River to conduct a prisoner exchange. The US forces told Evans that no exchange could happen until "The day after tomorrow." Confused by the constant repetition of this phrase, Evans spotted several boats hidden under some bushes. He returned to the British camp and was mocked by his peers for his assumption. Brock took him aside and was convinced that the attack could happen, so he sent for militia to assemble. The fighting began with the US ships landing on the British side of the river. Unfortunately, new recruits and an argument causing the command of the first invasion hindered the US efforts. A sentry noticed the boats landing, and went to warn the soldiers. During the fighting, Brock was cornered and killed. After the fighting was finished, the British emerged as victors and with only 21 dead. The Americans had over 100 soldiers dead. The Battle of Frenchtown The Battle of Frenchtown was one of the attacks made on Canada by the US to gain a foothold against the British. The American attack on Frenchtown was decisively successful. They easily took the town, as there were only Native Americans guarding it. General Harrison ordered more soldiers into the town, as the British could combine and overpower them at any time. Residents of Frenchtown warned the US Army that a large British force was moving to attack the town. Brigadier General Winchester dismissed the warnings. General Procter of Britain launched a sneak attack before sunrise on the 22 of January. General Winchester was awoken by artillery fire, but was captured by Indians on the way. After most of the US forces had been defeated, Winchester arranged for a surrender to be agreed upon as long as the prisoners of war were kept safe. When the last few American soldiers in Frenchtown, all Kentucky Riflemen, saw the British waving a white flag, they thought it ment that the British were surrendering. When they ran out towards the British, the British, who were giving them the signal that the Americans had surrendered, panicked and had the lines fire at the Riflemen. This caused an additional three hours of fighting before the American forces surrendered. The Battle of Thames The Battle of Thames was one of the most important battles of The War of 1812. The British position at the time relied on holding Lake Erie. The battle started with the naval battle The Battle of Lake Erie, after which General Procter was forced to retreat. Procter, with the help of Native American leader Tecumsah, were forced to retreat to a small town called Frenchtown. Tecumsah, after much thinking, decided that him and his warriors would stay back and hold off the US forces while the British retreated. The Indians began to skirmish with the Americans at Chatham, but were soon overwhelmed. Interesting Facts About the War The War of 1812 ended by the Treaty of Ghent which was signed on December 24, 1814.
The final battle of the war actually occurred two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed to stop the war. The battle was at New Orleans which was fought on January 8, 1815.

The bloodiest battle of the War of 1812 was the battle of Lundy's Lane. It occurred on July 25, 1814 where two evenly matched armies faced each other in nearly 12 hours of hand to hand combat, resulting in 900 casualties on each side. For The U.S.

Andrew Jackson- A major general, defeated invading british forces of 7500 men, and forced the British to withdraw from the region. Later became the 7th president.

James Madison- Was the president during the war, had to make a lot of decisions based upon the war.

William Henry Harrison- made commander of the army of the Northwest on September 17, 1812. He caught the British retreating on October 5, and he then won a key victory at the Battle of the Thames. For The British

Sir. Isacc Brock- A British Army Officer who was stationed in Canada in the early 1800's. He is remembered of his sacrifice at the battle of Queenston Heights that ensured preservation of Upper Canada.

Tecumseh- he was the War Chief of the tribe the Shawnee. He led over 2000 warriors and fought at the sieges of Fort Meigs, and Fort Stephenson, and his last battle was the Battle of the Thames, where he was killed. It was from June 18, 1812- February 18, 1815. Some historians consider the war a British victory, since the Canadians, who did most of the fighting for the British, had a massive manpower disadvantage. There were 300,000 Canadian colonists at the time, compared to the 8 million Americans. Bibliography http://www.riverraisinbattlefield.org/the_battles.htm

http://www.historiclewiston.org/battleofqueenstonheights/

http://www.historycentral.com/1812/Thames.html

http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/navalbattles1800s/p/lakeerie.htm

ttp://militaryhistory.about.com/od/navalbattles1800s/p/constitution.htm USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere The USS Constitution had 476 sailors, and was captained by Captain Isaac Hull. The British navy consisted of Captain James Richard Dacres and 263 sailors. The battle ended in a US victory, us only losing 9 sailors, and 13 wounded. The British lost 21 sailors and had 57 wounded. The Constitution had departed from Chesapeake Bay to join a squadron led by Commodore John Rodgers. The ship was rerouted to Boston to resupply after narrowly escaping capture by a British squadron. On August 19, 1812, The Constitution spotted an enemy sail on the horizon. Captain Hull waited until the ships were 25 yards apart before ordering the sailors to open fire. The tow ships collided many times during the fight, but all attempts to board the other were thwarted by musket fire. The third collision caused the Constitution to become entangled in the Guerrier's bowsprit. When the two ships separated, the Guerrier's bowsprit snapped, causing the fore and main masts to fall. Because they could not maneuver, Captain Dacres surrendered. Battle of Lake Erie The US Navy of 3 brigs, 5 schooners and 1 sloop was commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry. The British, led by Commander Robert Barclay, had 2 ships, 2 brigs, 1 schooner and 1 sloop. The British had taken the Lake in 1812, so the US had begun to build 2 20 gun brigs, the USS Lawrence and the USS Niagara, to take it back. Perry gained control of the Lake and didn't allow supplies to reach Amhertsburg, where Barclay was stationed. Barclay was then forced into battle in early September. At about 11:45, Barclay made the first shot from the HMS Detroit. Perry decided to transfer his flag and himself to the USS Niagara. The Niagara had gone undamaged during this attack, so Perry sailed into battle. Many British officers were wounded or killed, including Commander Barclay. The British attempted to wearship(turn their vessels), and in doing so the HMS Detroit collided with the HMS Queen Charlotte. Perry took advantage of this mistake and attacked with full force. The US had lost 27 sailors, and 96 wounded, and the British had 41 dead, and 93 wounded. Results of the War The U.S.

2,260 men killed in action.
4,505 men were wounded.
15,000 men died from all causes. The British

1,600 men killed in action.
3,679 men were wounded.
3,321 men died from diseases. By: Ben Lewis, Jack Levins, and Michael Velles.
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