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Transcript of 2004
(1750 - 1950)
The History of the English Language
The Industrial and Scientific Revolution
Samuel Johnson publishes his two-volume Dictionary of the English Language.
Robert Lowth publishes his Short Introduction to English Grammar.
Britain wrests control of Canada from the French.
It remained under British influence until 1867.
The Declaration of Independence is signed, and the American War of Independence begins.
Noah Webster publishes his American Spelling Book
The English first settle in Australia, near Sydney.
The Observer, the oldest national Sunday newspaper in Britain, begins publication.
The Act of Union incorporates Ireland into Britain, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The British occupy Cape Colony in South Africa.
The native Maori in New Zealand cede sovereignty to the British.
The telegraph is invented by Samuel Morse, inaugurating the development of rapid communication.
Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone and modernizes private communication.
Australia is established as a dominion of the British Empire.
New Zealand is established as a dominion of the British Empire.
The first American commercial radio station begins operating in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
First Radio Newscast on August 20, 1920
The first television service is established by the BBC.
BBC TV Opening ceremony 1936
World War II ends.
The Allied victory contributes to the growth of English as a lingua franca.
The number of speakers using English as a second language exceeds the number of native speakers.
From Cape to Cairo
1891 coined by Irish physicist George J. Stoney from electric + -on, as in ion (q.v.)
1889, from German Chromosom, coined 1888 by German anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hart. So called because the structures contain a substance that stains readily with basic dyes.
1830, from German Kaffein, coined by chemist F.F. Runge, apparently from German Kaffee "coffee" + chemical suffix -ine.
1840, beggining of modern photography, picture-taking device
1836, "any thing that radiates," agent noun in Latin form from radiate.
Meaning "heater" is from 1851.
1866, soap for shampooing from Anglo-Indian shampoo, from Hindi champo, imperative of champna "to press, knead the muscles," perhaps from Sanskrit capayati "pounds, kneads."
1776, from Hindi jangal "desert, forest, wasteland, uncultivated ground," from Sanskrit jangala-s "arid, sparsely grown with trees," of unknown origin.
1800, pai jamahs "loose trousers tied at the waist," worn by Muslims in India and adopted by Europeans there, especially for nightwear, from Hindi pajama, probably from Persian paejamah.
1770, used by Capt. Cook and botanist Joseph Banks, supposedly an aborigine word from northeast Queensland, Australia, usually said to be unknown now in any native language.
At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English.
With the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century and all the innovations the British were creating, came the need for new words, or neologisms. These words referred mostly to new materials, techniques, equipment and means of transportation, like steamships or railways.
Colonialism and the British Empire
British colonialism begun somewhere in the 16th Century, but it was between the 18th and 20th Century that it gathered speed and drive.
In the late 19th and early 20th Century, at the height of the British Empire, Britain ruled almost one quarter of the earth’s surface from Canada to Australia, India, the Caribbean, Egypt, South Africa and Singapore.
The main events on the evolution of modern english
With English expanding in all directions, emerged the necessity of creating a book gathering all the new words.
It leaded to the creation of the United States of America, the first country outside the British Isles with English as its principal language.
He became known as the dictionary man. It is said that he did for the English language what Newton had done for the stars.
He classified words, fixed their meaning and brought order to chaos.
Cook was an 18th century explorer and navigator whose achievements in mapping the Pacific, New Zealand and Australia radically changed western perceptions of world geography.
Queen Victoria was an emblematic of this period. She was an enthusiastic supporter and the figurehead of the British Empire.Victoria was the longest reigning British monarch.
Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark were the leaders to the first American expedition that explored the western part of the actual United States. Their journals, written as they explored routes to the west coast in 1804-6, contain over 500 native words (mainly animals, plants and food).
New ideas, new concepts and new words were introduced in the early science fiction and speculative fiction novels of Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s, Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, Jules Vernes, H.G. Wells and Lewis Carroll.
Major figures in this period
38,50 - 39,28