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Copy of Unit 9 - Developmental Psychology

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Jesse Lee

on 2 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Unit 9 - Developmental Psychology

Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Introduction 1. Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life cycle are called DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS. 2. One of the major issues in developmental psychology concerns the relative importance of genetic inheritance and experience in determining behavior; this is called the NATURE and NURTURE issue. 3. A second developmental issue concerns whether developmental changes are gradual or abrupt this is called the CONTINUITY and STAGES issue. 4. A third controversial issue concerns the consistency of personality and whether development is characterized more by STABILITY over time or by change. Prenatal Development and the Newborn 1. Conception begins when a woman’s OVARY releases a mature EGG. 2. The few SPERM from the man that reach the egg release digestive ENZYMES that eat away the egg’s protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg’s surface BLOCKS all other sperm. 3. The egg and sperm NUCLEI fuse and become one. 4. Fertilized human eggs are called ZYGOTES. During the first week, the cells in this cluster begin to specialize in structure and function, that is, they begin to DIFFERENTIATE. The outer part of the fertilized egg attaches to the UTERINE wall. 5. From about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing human, formed from the inner cells of the fertilized egg, is called an EMBRYO. During the final stage of prenatal development, the developing human is called a FETUS. 6. Formed as the zygote attached to the uterus, the PLACENTA transfers NUTRIENTS and OXYGEN from mother to fetus. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful substances known as TERATOGENS can pass through the placenta. 7. Moderate consumption of alcohol during pregnancy CAN AFFECT the fetal brain. If a mother drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth defects and intellectual disability that accompany FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME. 8. When an infant’s cheek is touched, it will vigorously ROOT for a nipple. 9. To study infants’ thinking, developmental researchers have focused on a simple form of learning called HABITUATION. Infancy and Childhood 1. The developing brain OVER produces neurons. At birth, the human nervous system IS NOT fully mature. 2. Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is developing most rapidly in the FRONTAL lobes, which enable RATIONAL PLANNING. The last cortical areas of the brain to develop are the ASSOCIATION AREAS linked with THINKING, MEMORY, and LANGUAGE. 3. Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior and are relatively uninfluenced by experience are called MATURATION. 4. Infants pass the milestones of MOTOR development at different rates, but the basic SEQUENCE of stages is fixed. Infants sit before they CRAWL and walk before they RUN. 5. Genes play a MAJOR role in motor development. 6. Until the necessary muscular and neural maturation is complete, including the rapid development of the brain’s CEREBELLUM, experience has a SMALL effect on learning to walk, for example. 7. Our earliest memories generally do not occur before age 3. 8. This phenomenon has been called
INFANTILE AMNESIA. 9. Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with THINKING,
KNOWING,
REMEMBERING
and COMMUNICATING. 10. The first researcher to show that the thought processes of adults and children are very different was Jean Piaget. 11. To organize and interpret his or her experiences, the developing child constructs cognitive concepts called SCHEMAS. 12. The interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing ideas is called ASSIMILATION.
The adaptation of existing ideas to fit new experiences is called ACCOMMODATION. 13. In Piaget’s first stage of development, the SENSORIMOTOR stage, children experience the world through their motor and sensory interactions with objects. This stage occurs between infancy and nearly age 2. 14. The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are removed from view is called OBJECT PERMANENCE.
This awareness begins to develop at about 8 months of age. 15. Developmental researchers have found that Piaget and his followers UNDERESTIMATED young children’s competence. 16. According to Piaget, during the preschool years and up to age 6 OR 7, children are in the PREOPERATIONAL stage. 17. The principle that the quantity of a substance remains the same even when the shape of its container changes is called CONSERVATION.
Piaget believed that preschoolers HAVE NOT developed this concept. 18. Preschoolers have difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view. This inability is called EGOCENTRICISM. 19.The disorder characterized by deficient COMMUNICATION and SOCIAL interaction is AUTISM. The “high functioning” form of this disorder is called ASPERGER’S SYNDROME. 20. In contrast to Piaget’s findings, researchers have discovered that the abilities to perform mental OPERATIONS, to think SYMBOLICALLY, and to take another’s PERSPECTIVE begin to show up early and continue to develop GRADUALLY. 21. Russian psychologist VYGOTSKY noted that by age 7 children stop thinking aloud and instead rely on INNER SPEECH. Talking to themselves helps children control their BEHAVIOR and EMOTIONS and master new skills. 22. Piaget believed that children acquire the mental abilities needed to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation by about 6 OR 7 years of age. At this time, they enter the CONCRETE OPERATIONAL stage. 23. In Piaget’s final stage, the FORMAL OPERATIONAL stage, reasoning expands from the purely concrete to encompass ABSTRACT thinking. Piaget believed most children begin to enter this stage by age 12. 24. Complementing Piaget’s emphasis on interaction with the PHYSICAL environment is Vygotsky’s emphasis on interaction with the SOCIAL environment. When parents mentor children and give them new words, they provide, according to Vygotsky, a SCAFFOLD upon which the child can build higher-level thinking. 25. Soon after OBJECT PERMANENCE emerges and children become mobile, a new fear, called STRANGER ANXIETY emerges. 26. This fear emerges at about age 8 MONTHS. 27. The development of a strong emotional bond between infant and parent is called ATTACHMENT. 28. The Harlow’s studies of monkeys have shown that mother-infant attachment does not depend on the mother providing nourishment as much as it does on her providing the comfort of BODY CONTACT. Another key to attachment is FAMILIARITY. 29. In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a CRITICAL PERIOD. Young birds would follow almost any object if it were the first moving thing they observed.
This phenomenon is called IMPRINTING. 30. Human infants DO NOT have a precise critical period, but because of MERE EXPOSURE, they attach to what they know. 31. There are two patterns of attachment: SECURE and INSECURE attachment. 32. Separation anxiety peaks in infants around 13 months, then GRADUALLY DECLINES. 33. According to Erikson, securely attached infants approach life with a sense of BASIC TRUST. 34. Most researchers believe that early attachments DO form the basis of adult attachments.
Securely attached people exhibit greater drive to achieve. 35. The Harlows found that when monkeys raised in social isolation were placed with other monkeys, they reacted with either fear or AGGRESSION. 36. Most abused children DO NOT later become abusive parents. 37. When placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants RECOVER from insecure attachment. 38. Experts agree that child care or day care DOES NOT constitute a risk factor in children’s development. 39. The primary social achievement of childhood is the development of a SELF-CONCEPT, which occurs by age 12. 40. Parents who impose rules and expect obedience are exhibiting AUTHORITARIAN style of parenting. 41. Parents who make few demands of their children and tend to submit to their children’s desires are identified as PERMISSIVE parents. 42. Setting and enforcing standards after discussion with their children is the approach taken by AUTHORITATIVE parents. 43. Studies have shown that children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have AUTHORITATIVE parents. 44. Whereas most Western parents place more emphasis on INDEPENDENCE in their children, many Asian and African parents focus on cultivating EMOTIONAL CLOSENESS. 45. Children in collectivist cultures grow up with a strong sense of FAMILY SELF , a sense that what shames or honors the person also shames or honors the family. 46. The biological and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male or female are our GENDER. 47. Compared with the average man, an average woman has more FAT, less MUSCLE, and is a few inches SHORTER. Women are more likely than men to suffer from DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, and EATING DISORDERS. 48. Compared with women, men are more likely to commit SUICIDE and to suffer ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE. 49. Aggression is defined as PHYSICAL or VERBAL behavior that is INTENDED. 50. Throughout the world, men are more likely than women to engage in HUNTING, FIGHTING, and WARRING. 51. The aggression gender gap pertains to PHYSICAL rather than VERBAL aggression. 52. Compared with women, men are perceived as being more DOMINANT, FORCEFUL, and INDEPENDENT. As leaders, they tend to be more DIRECTIVE , while women are more DEMOCRATIC. 53. Compared with men, women are perceived as being more NURTURANT. 54. Women are more concerned than men in making CONNECTIONS with others. 55. This difference is noticeable in how children PLAY, and it continues throughout the teen and adult years. Girls play in groups that are SMALLER and less COMPETITIVE. 56. Because they are more INTERDEPENDENT, women are likely to use conversation to EXPLORE relationships, while men are likely to use conversation to communicate SOLUTIONS. 57. Women tend and befriend – for example, they turn to others for SUPPORT, especially when coping with STRESS. 58. Gender differences in power, connectedness, and other traits peak in late ADOLESCENCE and early ADULTHOOD.
By age 50, the differences have DECREASED. 59. The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the developing person’s SEX.
The mother always contributes an X chromosome. When the father contributes a Y chromosome, the testes begin producing the hormone TESTOSTERONE. In about the 7TH week, this hormone initiates the development of external male sex organs. 60. Sex chromosomes control HORMONES that influence the brain’s wiring. In adulthood, part of the FRONTAL lobe, an area involved in VERBAL fluency, is thicker in women. Part of the brain’s PARIETAL cortex, a key area for SPACE perception, is thicker in men. 61. Our expectations about the way men and women behave define our culture’s GENDER ROLES. 62. Gender roles ARE NOT rigidly fixed by evolution, as evidenced, by the fact that they vary across CULTURES and over TIME. 63. Our individual sense of being male or female is called our GENDER IDENTITY. The degree to which we exhibit traditionally male or female traits and interests is called GENDER TYPING. 64. According to SOCIAL LEARNING theory, children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others, and being rewarded or punished. When their families discourage traditional gender typing, children DO organize themselves into “boy worlds” and “girl worlds”. Parents and Peers 1. Environmental influences begin during the period of PRENATAL development. 2. Rosenzweig and Krech discovered that rats raised from a young age in enriched environments had THICKER brain cortexes than animals raised in isolation. 3. Experience shapes the brain by preserving activated NEURAL connections and allowing unused connections to DEGENERATE. This PRUNING process results in a massive loss of unused connections by PUBERTY. 4. The idea that parents shape their children’s futures came from FREUDIAN PSYCHIATRY and PSYCHOLOGY. 5. Parents do influence some areas of their children’s lives, such as their POLITICAL ATTITUDES, PERSONAL MATTERS, and RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. 6. In areas such as PERSONALITY, the environment siblings share at home accounts for less than 10 PERCENT of their differences. 7. Experiences with PEERS have a powerful effect on how children develop, partly as a result of a SELECTION effect by which kids seek out others with similar attitudes and interests. Adolescence 1. Adolescence is defined as the transition period between CHILDHOOD and ADULTHOOD. 2. One of the first American psychologists to describe adolescence was G. STANLEY HALL. 3. Adolescence begins with the time of developing sexual maturity known as PUBERTY.
A 2 year period of rapid physical development begins in girls at about age 11 and in boys at about age 13. 4. The SEQUENCE of pubertal changes is more predictable than their TIMING. 5. Boys who mature EARLY tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent; they are also at increased risk for ALCOHOL use, delinquency, and premature SEXUAL activity. 6. For girls, EARLY maturation can be stressful, especially when their bodies are out of sync with their EMOTIONAL maturity. 7. The adolescent brain undergoes a selective PRUNING of unused neurons and connections. Also, teens’ occasional impulsiveness and risky behaviors may be due, in part, to the fact that development in the brain’s FRONTAL LOBE lags behind that of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. 8. During the early teen years, reasoning is often SELF-FOCUSED, as adolescents often feel their experiences are unique. 9. Piaget’s final stage of cognitive development is the stage of FORMAL OPERATIONS. Adolescents in this stage are capable of thinking logically about ABSTRACT as well as concrete propositions. This enables them to detect INCONSISTENCIES in others’ reasoning and to spot hypocrisy. 10. Lawrence KOHLBERG proposed that MORAL thought progresses through 3 stages:
PRECONVENTIONAL
CONVENTIONAL
POSTCONVENTIONAL 11. In the PRECONVENTIONAL stages of morality, (esp. with children) the emphasis is on...
Obeying rules in order to avoid PUNISHMENT or gain REWARDS. 12. CONVENTIONAL morality usually emerges by early adolescence. The emphasis is on...
Gaining social APPROVAL. 13. POSTCONVENTIONAL morality Individuals who base moral judgments on...
Their own perceptions of basic ethical principles. 14. MORALITY involves doing the right thing, and what we do often depends on social influences. 15. Typically, children who learn to delay GRATIFICATION become more...
socially responsible
academically successful 16. Moral ideas grow STRONGER when acted on. Erikson’s Stages:
GROUP AGE Psychosocial Stage
INFANCY Trust vs. Mistrust
TODDLER Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
PRESCHOOL Initiative vs. Guilt
ELEMENTARY Competence vs Inferiority
ADOLESCENCE Identity vs. Role Confusion
YOUNG ADULT Intimacy vs. Isolation
MIDDLE ADULT Generativity vs. Stagnation
LATE ADULT Integrity vs despair 17. Adolescent Identity...
often forged early, simply by ADOPTING their parents’ values and expectations.
Others assume an i.d. that OPPOSES that of their parents. 18. Self-esteem...
During the early to mid-teen years, self-esteem generally FALLS.
During the late teens and twenties, self-esteem generally RISES. 19. Social influence...
Adolescence is typically a time of:
increasing influence from one’s PEERS and
decreasing influence from PARENTS 20. Parental influence...
Most adolescents report that they DO get along with their parents.
They see their parents as having the most influence in shaping their RELIGIOUS FAITH, for example. Adulthood 1. During adulthood, age IS NOT a very good predictor of people’s traits. 2. The mid-twenties are the peak years for MUSCULAR strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output. Because they mature earlier, WOMEN also peak earlier. 3. The cessation of the menstrual cycle, known as MENOPAUSE, occurs within a few years of 50. This biological change results from lowered levels of the hormone ESTROGEN. 4. Although men experience no equivalent to menopause, they do experience a more gradual decline in SPERM count, and level of TESTOSTERONE. 5. Women outlive men by nearly 4 YEARS worldwide and by 5 YEARS in Canada, the United States, and Australia. 6. Although older adults are MORE susceptible to life-threatening ailments, they suffer from short-term ailments such as flu LESS often than younger adults. 7. Aging SLOWS neural processing and causes a gradual loss of BRAIN CELLS. 8. The mental erosion that results from progressive damage to the brain is called DEMENTIA. 9. The irreversible disorder that causes progressive brain deterioration is ALZHEIMER’S disease. 10. One factor that influences memory in older people is the MEANINGFULNESS of material. 11. There has been evidence of intellectual DECLINE during adulthood. 12. Contrary to popular opinion, job and marital dissatisfaction do not surge during the forties, this suggesting that a midlife CRISIS need not occur. 13. According to Erikson, the two basic tasks of adulthood are achieving INTIMACY and GENERATIVITY. According to Freud, the healthy adult is one who can LOVE and WORK. 14. Human societies have nearly always included a relatively MONOGAMOUS bond.
Marriage bonds are usually lasting when couples marry after age 20 and are WELL EDUCATED. 15. Marriages today are TWICE as likely to end in divorce as they were 40 years ago.
Couples who live together before marrying have a HIGHER divorce rate than those who do not. 16. As children begin to absorb time and energy, satisfaction with the marriage itself DECREASES.
This is particularly true among EMPLOYED women, who shoulder most of the burden. 17. For most couples, the children’s leaving home produces an INCREASE in marital satisfaction. 18. During the first two years of college or university, most students CANNOT predict their later careers.
Most DO shift from their original major. 19. As we age, the brain area called the AMYGDALA shows DECREASED activity in response to negative events. 20. Grief over a loved one’s death is especially severe when it comes SUDDENLY and before their time. 21. Reactions to a loved one’s death DO vary according to cultural norms.
Those who express the strongest grief immediately DO NOT purge their grief more quickly. 22. According to Erikson, the final task of adulthood is to achieve a sense of INTEGRITY.
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