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The Cold War
Transcript of The Cold War
Containment after World War II
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Korean War
Impact of the baby boom and GI Bill
high demand for consumer goods
Gross domestic product doubled between 1945-1960
growth of agriculture and business
population boom=higher demand for food
businesses boomed to keep up with consumer demand and continued defense spending
Arms and Space Race
is sole atomic power
developed atomic bomb
develops hydrogen bomb
explode its 1st hydrogen bomb
launch first satellite into space (Sputnik)
launches first satellite into space
lands first man on the moon
McCarthyism and the HUAC
Kennedy and the Cold War
The Cuban Missile Crisis
US Involvement in Vietnam
The Vietnam War under President Johnson
escalation of forces
Fall of Saigon
The Vietnam War under President Nixon
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
War Powers Act
Responses to the Vietnam War
Anti War Movement
Tinker v. DesMoines
Art, Literature and Music of the 1950's and 1960's
The Beat Generation
How might this era be assessed?
Purpose was to provide economic and military support for Greece and Turkey to resist communism.
Message: Committed the US to a policy of "containment" by resisting the global spread of communism.
Provide aid to war torn countries in Europe to rebuild their economies. President Truman believed that people who were desperate and miserable were often attracted to communism.
The Marshall plan was a success and benefited the American economy and sped up the economic recovery of Western Europe after World War II.
Alliance system formed by the United States, Canada and 10 western European countries. Members pledged to protect each other if attacked.
The Soviet Union responded with the Warsaw Pact made with eastern European nations.
In occupied Germany, the capital, Berlin, was split between West Berlin (France, US and British zones) and East Berlin (Soviet zone). The Soviets blockaded west Berlin which resulted in 11 months of supplies being airlifted into west Berlin.
Why did we get involved?
After WWII, the Korean peninsula (former Japanese colony) was divided between the Soviets and the US.
1950-North Korea invaded South Korea to attempt to unify the peninsula under Communist rule.
Outcome of Involvement:
Armistice signed in 1953
left Korea divided as it was before the war
An example of containment in action
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill) provided veterans funds for housing, education, and unemployment insurance.
Home ownership increased by 50%
More families moved to suburbs which led to a lower tax base for urban areas
increase in Americans with college degrees
75 million born from 1946-1964
Effects of Prosperity in the 1950's
The House of Un-American Activities Committee conducted "loyalty checks" about possible participation in the Communist party.
McCarthyism=making harsh accusations without evidence
Vernona Papers later confirmed many findings of the HUAC.
After the US deployed missiles to Turkey and a failed plan to overthrow Cuban leader Fidel Castro (Bay of Pigs Invasion), the Soviet Union decided to deploy missiles to Cuba.
Soviets withdrew missiles
US pledged not to invade Cuba
US withdrew missiles from Turkey
if French Indochina (aka Vietnam) fell to communists, this would create a "domino effect" meaning neighboring countries would also fall to communism
The South Vietnamese government requested help from the US and Kennedy agreed to send aid and military advisers.
After announcing that North Vietnamese ships attacked American ships in international waters, Congress gave President Johnson full military powers to stop North Vietnam's aggression.
Surprise massive attack on South Vietnamese strongholds including Saigon. This was a turning point in the war and proved that the Vietcong were not weak, under-supplied, and disorganized as many Americans believed.
Gradual withdraw of US forces from Vietnam while building up combat capabilities of the South Vietnamese military that would carry on the war.
The War Powers Act set limits on Presidential power in a conflict without a declaration of war from Congress. The President must inform Congress within 48 hours of sending troops to fight overseas. If within 60 days Congress does not approve the use of forces, the President must withdraw them.
1975-Saigon (now called Ho Chi Minh City) falls to North Vietnamese forces. This marked the end of the Vietnam War.
Draftees were 16% of US Armed Forces but 88% of the infantry riflemen in Vietnam. Draftees accounted for more than half of men killed in action (KIA) in Vietnam. One could defer the draft while they were in college and for other reasons. This left many working class youths and minorities making up the majority of draftees and casualties.
Rising draft calls and increased casualty rates fueled the Anti-War movement.
The Role of the Media
The Vietnam War was the first war people had the chance to witness via television. While the US Government claimed that they were winning the war, people saw differently based on news reports from the front lines. This created a
and led to many Americans losing faith in their government's reliability.
To combat the anti-war movement, President Nixon appealed to the "silent majority" of Americans that still supported the war.
1971- Lowered the right to vote to 18. Many believed that is was not right that an 18 year old could be drafted and go fight and die for his country but could not vote.
Two students were suspended from school for wearing black armbands to silently protest the Vietnam War. The Supreme Court ruled that suspending the students violated their first amendment rights and that they were allowed to wear the armbands to school.
Started in the 1950's, the Beat Generation opposed the conventions of the 1950's and shunned the "lifeless materialism" of the time period. The group was characterized as having a sense of freedom and spirituality. The actions of the group will later become known as the counter-culture.
Much of 1960's literature challenged mainstream thinking and reflected opinions of anti war protesters.
"Any war that requires the suspension of reason as a necessity for support is a bad war."
- Norman Mailer, Armies of the Night
Much of the music in this time period began to challenge the "silent majority" or conservative opinions prevalent in the 1950's. Much music in the 1960's protested the war in Vietnam or celebrated the psychadelic experience.
Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art