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States of Consciousness Chapter Five

The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 2nd ed. 2011. Laura A. King, McGraw-Hill, New York

Ed Rauscher

on 22 February 2018

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Transcript of States of Consciousness Chapter Five

occurs in

sleep and is defined as a
frightening dream that
wakens a person.
Nightmares peak for
children between 3 & 6 years.
Chapter Five
States of Consciousness
The Nature of Consciousness
The term
refers to a person’s awareness of external events and internal sensations.
Consciousness and the Brain
Neuroscientists do not believe there is a specific place in the brain for consciousness.

separate processing systems connect to produce consciousness.
5 Levels of Awareness

Higher-Level Consciousness
Controlled processes
are the most alert states of cons. Inds actively alert their attention toward a goal. ex. doing a math or science problem
2. Lower-Level Awareness
Automatic processes
are states of cons. that require little attention and they do not interfere with other activities. ex. punching in a cellphone number
lies in between active cons. and dreaming while asleep.

Mind wandering is the most well known type of daydreaming.

Daydreaming can be useful in that a person may be making plans, solving problems, or coming up with a creative idea.

Altered States of Consciousness
Altered states of cons. can be brought about through drugs, trauma, fatigue, meditation and hypnosis.
Biological rhythms
are the periodic physiological fluctuations in the body.
Bio rhythms are controlled
by our biological clock, which incls. seasonal cycles, 28 day cycles, and 24 hour cycles.
Circadian Rhythms
A consistent pattern of cyclical bodily activities, governed by an internal bio clock.
They include the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, & blood sugar levels, moods, & metabolism...
Biological clocks can be desynchronized by such things as jet lag or changing work shifts.
Why Do We Need Sleep?
Many important benefits to sleep such as
, and
Many of the body’s cells show increased production and sleep also gives the neurons time to shut down and repair themselves.
For some animals sleep is time to save energy and avoid getting eaten or falling off a cliff that they cannot see.
The Effects of Chronic Sleep
extreme sleep deprivation can cause hallucinations as well as speech and decision making
According to a national survey,
percent of Americans get less than
hours of sleep a night and 31 percent said they get less than 7 hours of sleep.
The five stages of sleep are differentiated by the types of wave patterns detected by an EEG.
As a person goes through sleep stages 1-4, they drift back up toward wakefulness, but do not reach stage 1. Instead enter
stage 5
, which is called REM sleep.

REM stands for rapid eye movement.
REM sleep is an active stage of sleep where dreaming occurs.
Sleep Throughout the Life Span
Getting sufficient sleep is important at every stage of human life.
need about 9 hours of sleep though they tend to get much fewer hours. This may impact academic performance.
Sleep may benefit physical growth and brain development in
infants and children.
Older adults
tend to go to bed earlier and wake up earlier.
Sleep and Disease
Stroke and asthma attacks are more likely during the night and early morning.
Sleeplessness is also associated with obesity and heart disease.
Sleep Disorders
is the inability to sleep; can involve trouble falling asleep, waking up during the night
A telltale sign is feeling poorly rested the next day. 1 in 10 suffer from insomnia.
occurs during the deepest stage of sleep.
Sleep talkers
are sound asleep.
night terror
is characterized by sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear.
is an overpowering urge to sleep. The person may fall asleep while talking or standing up...person with narcolepsy goes directly into
Sleep apnea:

fail to breath for a minute or longer and then wake up
gasping for breath.

Seems to result from
blocked airway or brain
ceasing to send a signal
to breath.
Freud believed that
dreams symbolized
unconscious wishes.
Analysis of dream symbols could uncover our hidden desires.

Manifest content
is the dream’s surface content, whereas
Latent content
refers to the dream’s hidden content or meaning (subconscious).
The cognitive theory of dreaming states that dreaming involves information processing, memory, and problem solving.
Dreams cont...
Psychoactive Drugs
Some people seek to alter their consciousness through the use of psychoactive drugs. 200 million people worldwide use illicit drugs each year (UNODC, 2008). 25 million are problem drug users.
Uses of Psychoactive Drugs
Psychoactive drugs
are substances that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change mood.
Drug use for personal gratification can be dangerous b/c it may lead to drug dependence.
Continued use of psychoactive drugs leads to
the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect.
Physical dependence
is the physiological need for a drug. Without the drug the person exhibits withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological dependence
is a strong desire to repeat using in order to fullfill powerful mental and emotional cravings.
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
 slow down mental and physical activity.
involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcohol that impairs the drinker’s health and social relationships.

50 to 60%
of those people that become alcoholics do so because of some
genetic disposition.
is a depressant that decreases the activity of the central nervous system. (phenobarbital)
Depressants cont...

are depressants that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation. (diazepam)

consist of opium and depress the central nervous system’s activity.
Stimulants increase activity in the central nervous system.
is the world’s most widely used drug.
is the main psychoactive ingredient in smoking and smokeless tobacco. It targets the brains reward system and is highly addictive.
a.k.a.“uppers” used to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight.
Crystal meth
; most insidious illicit drug. Causes a strong euphoric feeling.
: Cocaine, Amphetamines

Alcohol, Barbiturates

: Heroin, Morphine

: Cannabis, LSD
Classifications of Drugs
Chapter Preview:
I. Consciousness and Altered States of consciousness
II. Circadian Rhythms
III. The Stages of Sleep
IV. Theories of sleeping and dreaming
enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 15-30 minutes.
Crack is a potent form of cocaine.
 MDMA has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.
adverse effects on memory and cognitive processing.
modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
Psychological effects include a mixture of excitability, depressive, and mildly hallucinatory characteristics that make it difficult to classify the drug.
It can impair atten and memory.
most widely used drug by high school students.
When using LSD, objects can appear to change their shape and glow. Colors become like a kaleidoscope and amazing images unfold. Time seems to slow down.
Hypnotized inds are aware of what is happening and remember the exp. later.
Four Steps in Hypnosis

1. distractions are minimized
2. told to concentrate on something specific
3. told what to expect
4. certain obvious events/feelings are suggested
Are there differences within your
family or your friends in regard to the number of hours of sleep they require?

Is the number of hours different from yours?

To what do you attribute the difference ?
?????Critical Thinking Question?????
Activation Synthesis Theory
dreams result from the brain's attempts to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep.
Why do you feel people are so attracted to altered states of consciousness?
Consider the psychological &
???Critical Thinking???
Ind. Variations in Hypnosis
Some are more easily hypnotized than others
the more a person has the capacity to immerse themselves in imaginative activities such as listening to music or reading a novel the more likely to be hypnotized.
Uses of Hypnosis
Hypnosis is used for many different reasons such as a treatment for
a. alcoholism,
b. somnambulism (sleepwalking)
c. suicidal tendencies,
d. migraines,
e. overeating,
f. smoking.
Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation
Harnessing the power of the mind without a hypnotist can be accom. through meditation.
Meditation involves attaining a peaceful state of mind in which thoughts are not worrisome.
beneficial for many things such as depression, panic attacks, anxiety, chronic pain, and stress.
Which Sleep Disorder Is It???
Read each of the scenarios and identify which sleep disorder is occurring in the situation.
defining consciousness and the brain.
How do you see consciousness?
William James described the mind as a stream of consciousness, a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts and feelings.
When we sleep and dream, our level of awareness is lower than when we daydream, but sleep & dreams are not regarded as the absence of cons. rather low levels of awareness.
Why do we need sleep?
and what happens if we don't get enough?
...a form of lower level consciousness
No Awareness
generally applies to someone who has been knocked out by a blow or anesthetized.
Sigmund Freud used the term
as an aspect of our mind which stored unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.
Recently researchers have found many mental processes (thoughts, emotions, and perceptions) do occur outside of awareness.
An example of how Freud may attempt to analyze a dream.
A person had a dream about talking to a friend while riding on a train.
the manifest content is the train. but Freud believed the manifest content is really a disguised wish. (latent content)
Freud would have the person to think of all the things that come to mind when they think of a train. Through analysis the latent content would be brought to light.
Defining Consciousness
...an individual's awareness of external events & internal sensations under a condition of arousal.
...the physiological state of being engaged with the environment. ie. sleeping vs. awake
Altered states can range from losing one's sense of self-consciousness to hallucinating.
2 types of subconscious awareness
Waking Subconscious Awareness:
...just below the surface of our awareness.
...incubation= the subconcious processing that leads to a solution to a problem after a break from conscious thought about the problem.
Subconscious Awareness During Sleep
consequences of drug abuse/addiction include; losing track of responsibilities, probs at work and relationships, drug dependence, and risk for disease.
Although different drugs have different mechanisms of action, each drug increases the activity of the
reward pathway
increasing dopamine
After caffeine, alcohol is the most widely used drug in the U.s. approx. 2/3 of U.s. adults consume alcohol occasionally.
many alcoholics do not have close relatives who are alcoholics; this finding suggests environmental influences.
Should illicit psycyhoactive drugs be legalized for medical use?? recreational use??
would the legalization of illegal psychoactive drugs such as marijuana send the wrong message about drug use? Why?
Understanding Jet Lag
Like shift work, flying across several time zones can also cause fatigue, irritability, decreased alertness, as well as exacerbation of psychiatric disorders.
V. Sleep Disorders
Consciousness has long been a topic of interest in the field of psychology.
So, as students of psychology, explore this question for a minute...
What exactly is consciousness?
One of the main features of the evolutionary explanation is sleep conservation, as proposed by Webb (1982).

Webb suggested that sleep serves
the purpose of providing a period
of inactivity, therefore conserving energy which would be more efficiently spent at other times (e.g. during the day when it’s easier to find more food or a partner).
require avg 6hours of sleep per night
Do you use Drugs?
Anonymously write
your answer on a
sticky note
Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol are all classified as psychoactive drugs.
Terri Schiavo, 27 yro Florida woman.
went into full cardiac arrest and lost consciousness.
in a coma for two months and diagnosed in a Persistent vegetative state
Doctors concluded Terri had no consciousness and would never be conscious again.
Her husband agreed with the doctors and wanted to remove the feeding tube so Terri could die.
Her parents disagreed.
The courts battled from 1998-2005 and ultimately sided with Terri Schiavo's husband who removed life support.
situations such as this often force us to ask, "what is life?" or "what does it mean to be alive?"
with your groups, spend time sharing what you know about your topic
Dream Survey
Complete the survey. Let's consider the research findings on the types of dreams most people experience.
Where do you fit in?
With each successive REM cycle, the REM state becomes longer, more intense and emotional.

The final dream may last as long as one hour.
Alcohol slows down the brain’s activity. People may loosen up after a few drinks because the area involved in inhibition and judgment slows down.

. Adaptation/protection theory: conserve energy and protect from predators

. Repair/restoration theory: recuperate from daily activities.

. Growth/development theory: more sleep during stages of brain growth.

Learning/memory theory: more REM sleep during stages of greatest learning
Four Sleep Theories
Three Dream Theories
90-minute pattern
Dreams during REM sleep
Stages of Sleep
= unacceptable desires are normally repressed, but emerge in dreams
-Manifest content = story line of the dream
-Latent content = what the dream represents

Activation-synthesis hypothesis
= dreams are the brain’s way of making sense of random electrical stimulation occurring during REM

Cognitive view
= dreams organize and interpret information from waking experience into memories
Afflicts about 1 in 2000. Also runs in families
...can lead to high BP, stroke, & heart attack.
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