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The Feminist Theory

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Jenny Holter

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of The Feminist Theory

Important Terms and Concepts:
(Koppelman, 2011)

: an attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or limits a person on the basis of sex.
Historical Background
According to Koppelman, cultural sexism in the United States orginated with in gender roles brought by English and Eureopean colonists.

Historically men were considered the superior role or Head of the Household. Any property a woman owned became her husbands as soon as they were married. (Koppelman, 2011)

Post World War II
Cultural Sexism:
The societal promotion of negative beliefs and practices that reinforce rigid gender roles in which men are traditionally accorded a superior role in society while women are assigned to subordinate roles.
Individual Sexism:
Prejudice attitudes and behavior demeaning to women, or to men, because of beliefs about gender and gender roles, demonstrated whenever someone responds by saying or doing something degrading or harmful about persons of the other gender.
Institutional sexism
: Established laws, customs, and practices in a society that allows systematic discrimination against people or groups based on gender.
A woman or man
committed to the struggle for the social, economic, and personal rights of women and men; and advocate for equaility between women and men.
As Sir Williams stated, "The husband and wife are one, and the husband is that one" (Collins, 2003, p.12)
Gender Biases in earliest years of the United States
Even though men were expected to provide for their family, from the beginning women went beyond their limits of their gender role.
Revolutionary War: Women assumed additional responsibilities
while the men were away fighing in the Revolutionary war. (Koppelman, 2011)
Because of women's active involvement during the war, Koppelman states that it wasn't surprising that Abigail Adams persuaded her husband , John Adams to make sure women's rights were protected in the constitution.
Writing of the Constitution
Abigail Adams
And in the new code of laws........remember the ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could.....[women] are determined to foment a rebellion and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.

Abigail Adams (1744-1818)
19th Century/Civil War
Once again women assumed additional responsibilities while husbands were away fighting.
Women were still not allowed to speak in public about political issues. If a women defied society's norms, they received harsh criticism. Koppelman, 2011, p. 242
In 1889, based on his studies and that of psychologists, Le Bon believed that women represented the most inferior form of evolution and are closer to children and savages than to a civilized man. (Gould, 1981)
Still A LONG way to go.............
As Women tried to redefine their "place" in society during the early 20th century, they encountered resistance. (Koppelman, 2011)
Right to Vote 1920
Timeline of U.S. Suffrage Movement ( The Susan B. Anthony Center for Women's Leadership,2006)
1837- Mount Holyoke, the first college for women, is founded by Mary Lyon in South Hadley, MA
1845- Margaret Fuller publishes Woman in the Nineteenth Century, which is profound influence on the developement of the Feminist Theory.
1855- Elizabeth Caddy Stanton makes appearance in front of the New York State Legislature speaking in favor of expanding the Married Woman's Property Law. (Susan B. Anthony Center for Women's Leadership Timeline ,2006)
1863- Stanton and Anthony organize the Woman's Loyal National League, demanding that the Senate abolish slavery. (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
1865- 13th Amendment to abolish slavery (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
-The American Equal Rights Association is founded during the eleventh National Women's Rights Convention. (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
Anthony and Stanton
1920-19th Amendment is adopted and the women of the United States are finally enfranchised. (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
Late 1920's- Many states continued to bar women from jury duty and political office. Middle class women attend college and enter labor force( Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
1941- United States enters WWII. Millions of women are recruited for defense industry jobs in war years and become significant part of labor force.(Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
Data on teacher-student interactions K-12
Post World War II & 1950's
3 years after the war, the United States was the only nation in the Western Hemisphere that refused to sign a statement issued by the United Nations that supported equal rights for women (Faludi, 2006).
LARGER ISSUE: Gender Stereotypes for both girls and boys are STILL being reinforced in our schools and society (Sadker, 2005).
For Example: 1. boys receive more math/science related toys than girls.
2. Earn higher scores on most standardized achievement tests during high school and college.
3. Continue to dominate high-paying occupations such as those in math- and science-related fields. (Koppelman, 2011)
Feminist Theories
Adapted From Scott Plunkett, PhD, Course Notes
"There is no ONE feminist theory, although all of the theories share common assumptions and values. (Plunkett)
What is enough? Enough is when some body says, "Get me the best people you can find,"and nobody notices when half of them turn out to be women.
Louise Renne (1937-)
From 1946 to 1952- Huge increase in births, called Baby Boomer Generation (Koppelman, 2011).
Women were reinforced in their roles
as wives and mothers (Koppelman, 2011).
suburbs*isolation from cities* no jobs outside home
Women Continued to resist efforts to keep them in their place...........
By 1980, women represented 43% of the workforce and attending college in record numbers (Koppelman, 2011).
1972- Equal Rigts Amendment passes. Civil Rights Act bans sex
discrimination in employment and education (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006).
1992- More women run for and are elected to public office than in any other year in United States (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006).
* seeking political influence
* better education
*health reform
*job equity
*legal reform

1964- Civil Rights Act prohibits job discrimination on the basis of race or sex and establishs Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to address discrimination claims(Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006).
In the 1960's there was a resurgence of the feminist movement which grew from the movement for the rights of African Americans (Scott Plunkett, Ph.D, Course Notes).
Oppression & Liberation
Contributors: Betty Frieden
Fight for Equality Continues Today:
Addressing Sexism in businesses and institutions
Inclusive Language- terms that include both men and women.

*Domestic Violence*Sexual Assault*Rape
*Salary inequity between men and women
Gender Issues In Schools
Sadker and Sadker (1994) reported consistent sexist patterns for both teacher and student behaviors.
* Boys were more likely to call out answers without raising their hands and interrupting when others are talking or answering (Koppelman, 2011).
* Because boys are more aggressive, teachers tend to call on them more than girls and discipline boys more often than girls (Koppelman, 2011).
*Teachers were more likely to challenge boys to finish homework , where they would help girls to finish their homework (Koppelman, 2011).
standardized test
Liberal Feminist:
believe gender should not be a barrier since
men and women are endowed with same rational spirit.
ending sex discrimination/challenging sex stereotyping in the work force
* Social Feminist: believe women are oppressed
by capitalism and focus on redefining capitalism
in relation to women's work( Plunkett, 2006).
Radical Feminist
: insist the oppression of women is fundamental. Believe the current patriarchal system must be eliminated
issues of the body: men's control over women's sexuality and reproduction/ men's use of rape and violence to violate women.
The hierarchical
social sturcture through which
men dominate and manipulate women (Avis 1986).
Gender: A person's learned masculine or feminine status apart from one biological male or female makeup. (www.csnu.edu) Scott Plunkett, PhD.)
Gender is analyzed in terms of the socialization
process;gender identity;the social structure
of family, state, education, religion and other
institutions; cultural or symbolic notions; and
gender-power relationships. (www.csnu.edu) (Scott Plunkett, PhD.)
19th Century
The Feminist Theory

Jenny Holter
EDUC 5335 Multicultural Populations

The Feminist Theory /perspective reflects the thinking across the feminist movement that focuses on:

* The inequality of power between men and women in society and in family life.

* The feminist perspective - is about choice and about equally valuing the choices individuals make.

(adapted from Scott Plunkett, PhD, Course Notes, www.csun.edu)

19th Century Continued..
July 19, 1848- First Women Rights Convention called by Motts and Stanton. (Susan B. Anthony Center for Women's Leadership Timeline, 2006)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1828: Englishwomen Frances Wright is the first women to address an American audience composed of both men and women
"Secure" Equal Rights for all American Citizens. (www.britinica.com)
1872 Susan B. Anthony registers and votes claiming the 14th amendment gives her that right. Several Days later she is arrested. (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006)
1933: Frances Perkins is appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as first female Secretary of Labor. Many women gained positions in federal social services bureaus (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006).
1936 Federal court rules birth control safe for it's own sake, rather than solely for prevention of disease (Susan B. Anthony Center, 2006).
But Work Force for Women Doesn't Last....
Some claim this is the 2nd Wave of the Feminist Movement
1960's to Present Day (www.datahookup.com/feminist theory and resources).
Author of
The Feminine Mystique
This book talked about women finding fulfillment beyond traditional roles. (A+E television networks, LLC).
The Feminist Theory was developed more recently, during the 2nd wave of feminism( www.datehookup.com/content-femenist-theory-and -resources)
The Feminist Theory & Education.
Feminist Theory embraces everything feminine but can denounce many things masculine, but over all it seeks to understand the difference between the two and hopes to elevate the feminine in many areas of philosophical undestanding in the arts, literature, economics, even mathematics ( www.datehookup.com/content-feminist-theory-and-resources.htm).
Koppelman states that too many people perceive a feminist as an angry woman. (2011)
Koppelman also discussed that the media focuses on feminist who represent only a radical prespective.
works within the structure of mainstream society to integrate women into that society(www.uda.edu)
Kinds of Feminism
Overthrow Capitalist System
Marxism meeting Radical Feminism
Cutting Edge of the Feminist Theory from 1967-1975.

No longer universally acceptable as it was then..
Doesn't provide foundation for cultural feminism. (uah.edu/woolf/feminism)
Koppelman states, If America creates a society that offers opportunity to add and receive unique gifts that each individual has to offer, the male-female power game can cease.... a victory for everyone.
What Do You Think of when you hear the word
Feminist or term Feminist Theory???
Feminism Survey: Men On the Street/ Trixie Films
*Can be applied to broad range of
*Provides valuable critique of other theories
and perspectives.
Adapted from Scott Plunkett Plunkett, PhD., Course Notes
from CSNU, Northridge, California, 2006)
* Research and Practice are emotionally charged
*overemphasis on gender and power
Different Perspectives may cause problems with actually solving problems and getting an appropriate point across to society.
My Own Thoughts........
Schools and School Districts
need to implement strategies both in schools and society to address the ongoing gender equity problems (Koppelman, 2011).
Title IX of the Educaion Amendment
of 1972
Focus in schools should be on whether

are given plenty of opportunities to learn and develop their own unique talents and abilities ( Koppelman, 2011).
Koppelman, Kent (2011).
Understanding Human Differences
. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

(Adapted from Scott Plunkett, PhD, Course Notes, CSUN, 2006)

A+E television networks, LLC.
Full transcript