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Copy of Copy of Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson
A Feud Between Founding Fathers
"The Arrogant Aristocrat"
Hamilton was born in the West Indies and raised on the Caribbean island of St. Croix.
Hamilton had lowly origins
since he was conceived out
When Hamilton was 13, a devastating hurricane struck the island. Hamilton wrote a vivid description of the storm that impressed all who read it.
A few St. Croix leaders arranged to send the talented teenager to New York, where he could get the education he deserved.
With no money or family connections to help him rise in the world, Hamilton made his way on ability, ambition, and charm. George Washington spotted Hamilton’s talents early in the Revolutionary War. Washington made the young man his aide-de-camp or personal assistant.
Hamilton possessed an "out of my way style"... He never
looked back or waited for stragglers
-Ellis, pg. 60
With the help of John Jay and James Madison, Hamilton wrote the Federalist Papers... a defense for the newly proposed Constituion.
Hamilton wrote 51 of the 85 Federalist Papers, under
the name Publius
Federalist 84- Hamilton argues that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights. He states that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a bill of rights.
Federalist 78- also written by Hamilton, lays the groundwork for the doctrine of judicial review.
Federalist 70- presents Hamilton's case for a one-man chief executive.
President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first United States Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. He stayed in office until January of 1795.
In the next two years, Hamilton submitted five reports:
* First Report on the Public Credit
* Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports
* Second Report on Public Credit: Report on a National Bank.
* Report on the Establishment of a Mint
* Report on Manufactures
Hamilton vs. Burr
"The Sage of Monticello"
At the beginning of the American Revolution, Jefferson served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia. He then served as the wartime Governor of Virginia, barely escaping capture by the British in 1781
Jefferson was born in Virginia to an wealthy and respected family. One of ten children, he was gifted with many talents. As a boy, he learned to ride, hunt, sing, dance, and play the violin.
With land inherited from his father, Jefferson set himself up as a Virginia tobacco planter. Once he was established as a planter, Jefferson entered Virginia politics.
Jefferson served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress beginning in June 1775.
When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Jefferson was appointed to a five-man committee to prepare a declaration to accompany the resolution.
Jefferson was not regarded as a great public speaker, however the words he put on paper were widely respected.
The Declaration would eventually become Jefferson's major claim to fame, and his eloquent preamble is an enduring statement of human rights.
1st United States Secretary of State, (1789–1793).
In 1784, he entered public service again, in France, first as trade commissioner and then as Benjamin Franklin's successor as foreign minister.
According to Joseph Ellis, Jefferson was quick to accept the position in France because of his wife's premature death during childbirth (pg. 67)
He was the second Vice President, (1797–1801) under President John Adams. Winning on an Democratic Republican platform, Jefferson took the oath of office and became President of the United States in 1801.
Perhaps the most notable achievements of his first term were the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803 and his support of the Lewis and Clark expedition. His second term, a time when he encountered more difficulties on both the domestic and foreign fronts, is most remembered for his efforts to maintain neutrality in the midst of the conflict between Britain and France; his efforts did not avert war with Britain in 1812.
Although Hamilton and Jefferson were
both founding fathers, the two men
held conflicting political philosophies
during the 1790s.
Hamilton’s view of human nature was shaped by his wartime experiences. He had seen people put their own interests and personal profit above patriotism and the needs of the country many times.
Most Federalists shared Hamilton’s view that people were selfish and out for themselves. For this reason, they did not trust any system of government that gave too much power to “the mob,” or the common people. Such a system, said Hamilton, could only lead to “error, confusion, and instability.” (Milligan, pg. 138)
Jefferson’s view of human nature was much more hopeful than Hamilton’s. He assumed that informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves and their country. “I have so much confidence in the good sense of men,” Jefferson wrote when revolution broke out in France, “that I am never afraid of the issue where reason is left free to exert her force.”
Jefferson had great faith in the goodness and wisdom of people who worked the soil – farmers and planters like himself. “State a problem to a ploughman and a professor,” he said, and “the former will decide it often better than the latter.” (Milligan, pg. 137)
Federalists believed that the country should be ruled by “best people” – educated, wealthy, public-spirited men like themselves. Such people had the time, education, and background to run the country wisely. “Those who own the country,” said Federalist John Jay bluntly, “ought to govern it.”
Federalists favored a strong national government, they believed in loose construction, a broad or flexible interpretation of the Constitution. They hoped to use the new government’s powers under the Constitution to unite the quarreling states and keep order among the people. In their view, the rights of the states were not nearly as important as national power and unity.
Best Form of Government
Democratic-Republicans had no patience with the Federalists’ view that only the “best people” should rule. To Democratic-Republicans, this view came close to monarchy, an idea many of them fought against during the American Revolution.
Democratic-Republicans believed that the best government was the one that governed the least. A small government with limited powers was most likely to leave the people alone to enjoy the blessings of liberty. To keep the national government small, they insisted on a strict construction, or interpretation, of the Constitution. The Constitution, they insisted, meant exactly what it said, no more and no less. Any addition to the powers listed there, was unconstitutional and dangerous.
Hamilton’s dream of national greatness depended on the United States developing a strong economy. In 1790, the nation’s economy was still based mainly on agriculture. Hamilton wanted to expand the economy and increase the nation’s wealth by using the power of the federal government to promote business, manufacturing, and trade.
In 1790, Hamilton presented Congress with a plan to pay off all war debts as quickly as possible. If the debts were not promptly paid, he warned, the government would lose respect both at home and abroad.
Hamilton’s plan for repaying the debts was opposed by many Americans, especially in the South. Most southern states had already paid their war debts. They saw little reason to help states in the North pay off what they still owed.
Like most Americans in the 1790s, Jefferson was a country man. He believed that the nation’s future lay not with Federalist bankers and merchants, but with plain, Democratic-Republican farm folk. “Those who labor in the earth,” he wrote, “are the chosen people of God, if ever He had a chosen people.”
Contrary to Hamilton, Jefferson wanted to only pay off national debt.
Democratic-Republicans favored an economy based on agriculture. They opposed any measures designed to encourage the growth of business and manufacturing.
Of the political philosophies that
Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed on,
the economic questions held the most serious
political implications for the new nation.
1. Should the new federal government of the United States assume the debt incurred during the war by the states and Constitutional Congress?Be sure to explain your reasoning.
2. Should the federal government establish a central or National Bank?Be sure to explain your reasoning.
3. Should the nation attempt to promote manufacturing or remain an agrarian economy?Be sure to explain your reasoning.
Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler, the daughter of a General and wealthy businessman, from one of the most influential families in the state of New York
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Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had very different upbringings, but each man would eventually be seen as a founding father. Do you believe that their upbringings shaped their political views and opinions? Why or why not?
At this point, read your assigned document and find specific examples of the corresponding political system using the chart provided.
Students will compare and contrast
the political ideologies advocated by Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton.
Students will analyze and interpret primary source material written by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.
There were Three parts of Hamilton's financial plan
First he planned to pay off state debts by borrowing money from private creditors (people who loaned money)
Secondly, he planned to establish a national bank to mandate transactions and print a national currency
Thirdly, he wanted to make America less dependent on expensive foriegn goods. Therefore he wanted to give handouts to American businesses and place tariffs on imported goods.
Questions For The New Nation
Led by Alexander Hamilton
Wanted a strong central government led by industry and the wealthy
Emphasis on manufacturing, shipping and trade
Loose interpretation of the Constitution
Favored by national bank
Favored protective tariffs
(a tax on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition).
Led by Thomas Jefferson
Wanted a strong state government led by the common man
Emphasis on agriculture
Strict interpretation of the Constituion
Opposed the national bank
Opposed protective tariffs
(a tax on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition)
Jefferson was inspired by his time as an ambassador in France. He fully supported the French Revolution especially since their cause was so similar to America's. He even helped them write their own version of Decleration of Independence. (The French Decleration of the Rights of Man)
Neutrality- French Revolution
Hamilton was inspired by his time in France as an American ambassador during the French Revolution. He liked its simil
Hamilton saw the French Revolution as a threat
to America. At the time trade with Britain was a major source of America's income. He beleived that if America did not stay neutral it would damage this relationship. Hamilton also did not want America involved in such a gory war. He convinced Washington to announce America's neutrality during the war.
Location of Capitol
They came to a compromise, Jefferson would support Hamilton's new plan if Hamilton allowed the capital to be in Philadelphia and then Washington D.C.
New York City
From 1785 to 1790 the captiol was temporarily located in New York City. However, many people wanted it to be moved. Hamilton wanted it to remain in his hometown New York City.
Jefferson supported a location on the Potamac (now known as Washington D.C.) However, while it was being built the capital would be located in Philadelphia.
Aaron Burr was elected in 1800 as
Thomas Jefferson's Vice President. However,
Hamilton looked down on Burr and ruined his
chances for re-nomination for vice president
and to become governor of a New York.
Burr retaliated by challenging
Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton
felt obligated to accept.
Burr fired a fatal shot into
Hamilton's abdomen. He died the
next day with a pistol ball next
to his spine.
Hamilton stated before the duel and after that he did not want to shoot Burr. He hit the tree above Burr's head instead.
Video 1 - Link Here if video
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What is the tone and topic?
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