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A Tour Through the Pre-Civil War
Transcript of A Tour Through the Pre-Civil War
Revolution Rise of cities Transportation Agrarian Slavery Farmers Slave Life -Slaves were very religious beings; also called "spirituals." -Slaves were considered "property" that were bought by slave-owners to do their farm-work for them. -Used as house slaves, field slaves who picked cotton, specialized tradesmen or artisians, carpenters, etc... How were slaves punished? Why? -Slaves were whipped, chained, and shackled. Some females suffered sexual abuse. -Slaves were punished for the smallest of offenses such as "looking" at a white person. Different attitudes towards slavery -The North wanted slavery to be contained in the southern states. -The South wanted slavery to spread through western territories. Note: With new territories opening up in the West, the North and South compete for land , resources, political votes, and if slavery will take place there. New land -U.S. gains land west of the Mississippi River- "Louisiana Purchase." Should the Louisiana Purchase be open to slavery? Missouri Problem -Missouri applies to be a slave state. -When Missouri has statehood, they will get representatives and senators in Washington D.C. -Before they applied for statehood, there were 11 slave states and 11 free states, making each side have even power. -If Missouri was going to be a slave state, the balance of power would be uneven. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Northern states Southern states 11 12 Missouri Compromise -Missouri accepted as a slave state. -To balance number of states and power in congress, Maine enters at a free state. -Western territory is divided by an imaginary line at the 36 30 latitude. -Anything north if the imaginary line, slavery was illegal; anything south of the line, slavery was legal. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr 12 12 Southern states Northern states Even Yet more new land and more challenges -After US wins Mexican war in the late 1840's, they gain new territory: California, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico. -North and South fight bitterly: Will this new land be open to slavery? Compromise of 1850 -After gaining new land, the country is trying to avoid war. -A compromise was proposed that California will enter as a free state while the rest of the land decided on their own if they should have slavery. Popular sovereignty -Also, slave trade was banned in the capital. -Fugitive slave act was proposed. South Gains North Gains -Popular sovereignty -Fugitive Slave Act -California enters as a free state -Slave trade is banned in Washington D.C. Recap The Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 prevented war for some time by defining areas where slavery could and could not be and balancing the North and South. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 -In 1854, an unorganized territory would be divided into two territories: Kansas and Nebraska. -Popular sovereignty was deciding if these territories should have slavery or not. -Pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers are growing tension and anger with each other (Bleeding Kansas-1856). Publication of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" -Author, Harriet Beecher Stowe, wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin" which told the story of slave life. -Told how harsh the life of a slave was. -People around the world were horrified of the content in her selection. It changed and impacted over one million people in the 1800's. Underground Railroad -Wasn't underground nor a railroad. -Abolitionists, people who hated slavery, would help slaves escape freedom (Canada). -After escaping their slave owners, slaves would find a person called a conductor who would help them to freedom by hiding in "stations" along the way. Dangers of the underground railroad -A person who played a role in the Underground Railroad, called a bounty hunter, would chase slaves and conductors and be rewarded for bringing them back to their slave owners. -Patrol, people who roamed the trails of the Underground Railroad, shut down stations so escapes cannot hide. Fugitive Slave Act -A law is proposed to make helping a runaway slave illegal. - -Northern states have to return runaway slaves. The idea of slavery kept getting Northerners more angry. Note: John Brown-the raider -He was a famous abolitionist. -He led a raid in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, hoping to arm slaves and lead a rebellion against slavery. -Uprising was stopped and Brown was hung for treason and murder upon the country. Reactions from the John Brown event -The North and South were both shaken and frightened by this event. -The North's anger with slavery was growing. Dred Scott -Dred Scott, a slave in Missouri (slave state), had been moved to Illinois (free state) with his slave owner. -Scott sued for his freedom since he now lived in a free state. -Question: Now that Scott lived in a free state, is he still a slave or a free man? Legal Actions -Case goes to the U.S. Supreme Court. The case/decision of Dred Scott (1857) -Scott was a slave (property); therefore he could not sue in court. - Constitution prohibits property being taken away without due process. Effects *Decision legalizes slavery anywhere in the US. -The North is stirring with anger. Election of 1860 -Issue of election: Slavery in the West. -Abraham Lincoln was the republican candidate while the democrat was Stephen Douglas. -Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery. -Stephen Douglas supported popular sovereignty. Election results -Lincoln wins the election and the South is boiling with anger. -Southern states think Abraham Lincoln will not respect their way of life. -The South believed they had the right to leave the Union and claimed states rights. States' Rights -Most Southerners believed states should have more power than the federal government (10th amendment) -Because each individual states has its own problems and needs, the federal government should leave them alone to decide matters on their own. -The South believed that states' right's and the 10th amendment gave them the right to secede if they wished. Secession -Conversation in the South has been including things like leaving the Union and forming their own country. -South Carolina was the first state to leave while others soon followed. -The South names their country "The Confederacy States of America (A.K.A. Confederacy). President: Jefferson Davis. -Virginia is the Capitol. Fort Sumter -Even after the North and South are separate countries, they are still angry about each other's way of life. -Confederacy attacks Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, thinking that it belongs to them. -The Union thinks it belongs to themselves. -The Civil War begins. By Michael McCoy *Denies citizenship to free and enslaves blacks. -The two sides were staring at each other, armed, waiting for the first bullet to be shot. -Afterward, the Union surrenders with no loss of life. Note: With new territories opening up in the West, politics and government expand through the Northern and Southern territories.