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tropical Rainforest

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sydney loukus

on 8 January 2015

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Transcript of tropical Rainforest

Energy Pyramid
Tropical Rainforest
A Tropical Rainforest is a forest with tall trees, and a year-round temperature of 94 degrees and never falls below 64 degrees. Also it recieves 250 cm of rainfall each year, 21.3 cm each month.
In this presentation we are going to explain the biomes in a Tropical Rainforest by showing what the species that live there are.
Plants found in the Tropical Rainforest biome.
Bengal Bamboo
Bougainvillea
Curare
Coconut Tree
Durian
Jambu
Kapok Tree
Mangrove Forests
Strangler Figs
Tualang
Animals found in the Tropical Rainforest Biome
Africa Forest Elephant
Bengal Tiger
Chimpanzee
Harpy Eagle
King Cobra
Linn's Sloth
Orangutan
Silvery Gibbon
Toco Toucan
Vampire Bat
Common Names:
Pygmy Elephant
Found Where:
Africa
Information:
Look different than Savanna Elephant
Smaller and Stockier
Male Forest Elephants only get about 8 feet tall
Rounded ears
Their ivory tusks have a pinkish tinge
Have a long narrow face because their lower jaw is longer
Have adapted to live in dense forests
They are smaller, which makes them capable of moving through the forest easier
Their tusks go out straight instead of curved so as to not get caught in the under brush
Not much is known about them because they are harder to track than regular elephants
They are placed on the endangered species list
Herbivores
Tropical Rainforest Food Chain
Tropical Rainforest Map
Tropical Rainforest
Bengal Bamboo
Found Where:
Bengal Bamboo is found in southeast Asia.

Characteristics:
It will grow to a height of 40-80 ft.
Bengal Bamboo has thin, long, green leaves and dark green stems with chambers inside them.
Will have flowers once in its lifetime, which die after they bloom. It does not matter where the flowers are they all look the same.
Facts:
Bengal Bamboo is in fact not a tree or bush, but actually is a grass.
It helps stop soil erosion.
Sucks up extra water that falls during the many rain showers, that would have drown most of the other plants in the area
Provides homes for many animals.
Adaptations:
Bengal Bamboo will grow very tall very fast so it gets all the sunlight.
African Forest Elephant
Bengal Tiger
Secondary Consumer
Silvery Gibbon
Primary Consumer
Producer
Strangler Figs
Bougainvillea
Curare
Coconut Tree
Durian
Jambu
Kapok Tree
Mangrove Forests
Strangler Fig
Tualang
Common Names:
Spineless Indian Bamboo, Calcutta Cane

Found Where:
Tropical Rainforests in South America, particularly Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia, and Venezuela.
Characteristics:
Can grow to be 30 ft tall.
Bougainvillea can be vines, trees, or even shrubs with very pointy thorns.
The flowers can be a variety of colors: from red, to white, to yellow, to pink, to orange, or even purple.
The flowers are made up of small tubes surrounded by thin papery flowers.
The Bougainvillea has drip tips at the end of its heart-shaped leaves, so it is not weighed down by a heavy rainfall.
Leaves are a dark rich green color that clearly resembles ivy.
The leaves also have fine hairs on their undersides.
Adaptations:
Developed hooks so it could climb other plants for support.
Can grow in semi or complete sunlight.















Bengal Tiger
Found Where:
Sundanese regions of India, Bangladesh, China, Siberia, and Indonesia
Information:
The color base is an orangish brown with white accents around its cheek, mouth, eyebrows, and stomach. Long black stripes complete the tigers look
Can weigh up to 575 pounds
The build of the Bengal Tiger is broad with long lean legs that are slender
Most of the time, the texture of the fur is very fine and feels soft to the touch
This particular tiger is very quiet and can be quite sneaky
The Bengal Tiger is not the largest tiger, the largest happens to be its cousin, the Siberian Tiger
Bengal Tigers can get up to ten feet long and three feet tall
The average life span for a wild tiger is around 15 years
The Bengal Tiger is a carnivore, it eats; boars, wild ox, monkeys, and other animals
It can catch bigger animals but prefers to catch the young of the old because they don't run as fast
Is placed on the endangered species list
Chimpanzee
Harpy Eagle
Common Names:
Curare, Grieswurzel, Pareira Brava, Pareira, Vigne Sauvage.
Found Where:
South American rainforest canopies.
Characteristics:
4 in diameter vine base
big heart-shaped leaves alternating around the vine
4-8 in long
3-7 in wide
2-6 in stem
leaves are smooth on top and hairy on bottom with deeply indented veins that run the length of the leaves.
small clusters on greenish-white flowers appear all over the plant. Flowers are both male and female.
has tiny fleshy oval-shaped fruits about 1-2 mm long.
Facts:
tribes and locals will use the roots and stems of the curare, along with various other plants and venomous animals, to create a poison that causes paralysis in the upper body that often leads to death if it gets into the bloodstream.

King Cobra
Linn's Sloth
Orangutan
Silvery Gibbon
Toco Toucan
Vampire Bat
Common Name:
Chimp
Found Where:
Central and West Central Africa and the Tropical Rainforests
Information:
Grow up to 3-5 feet tall
Can weigh up to 176 pounds
They have black fur and bald faces
They are omnivores
The have adapted in several ways
They construct nests at night out of leaves and branches up to 18-29 feet up in the air
Developed a way to fish out termites and ants out of their nests by using branches and blades of grass
Colonies have been seen to use rocks as hammers to open up nuts
Males hunt together when hunting for smaller monkeys
Is on the endangered list
Found Where:
Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Pacific region.
Characteristics:
50-80 ft tall at maturity.
All have a bunch of light feathery leaves at the top of their smooth and graceful trunks.
The trunks are a light gray color, while the leaves are a greenish yellow color.
The coconut tree will flower clusters of flowers, which will develop into the coconut fruit, otherwise known as the coconut.
The coconut has a hard outer shell, a soft meaty inner layer, and a hollow center filled with coconut milk.
Has shallow roots.
Facts:
Coconut trees provide people with food, water, shelter, and a way to get money.

Common Names:

Civet Fruit, Stinkvrucht
Found Where:
Borneo, Indonesia, and Malaysia. (southeast Asia)
Characteristics:
Lifespan of 80-120 years or more
Are said to only die if blown down by a storm or by being cut down.
90-130 ft tall. With trunks 4 ft in diameter.
Rough, vertically splitting dark brown bark covers the entire trunk.
Can have straight or curved branches, that have gray or coppery scales on them when young.
Has droopy evergreen leaves that grow alternately on the branches.
2-10 in long and 1-3 in wide. Leathery to the touch
Are rounded at the base and pointed at the end with an oblong body.
Dark green and glossy tops, with hairy golden scales underneath. When seen at a distance they appear golden.
When first budded the are folded at their midrib, but when they mature they stretch out to their full width.
Has flowers that grown directly from the trunk in groups of 1-45 that are creamy white to a golden brown, which are nocturnal.
Fruit is an circlish shape with sharp hard spines covering the entire surface. They grow directly on the trunk of the tree in a form called cauliflorous growth.
Facts:
Does not bear fruit every year.
Walking under a Durian tree ca be fatal to your health, because the fruit could fall down and puncture your head killing you instantly.


Common Names:
Jambu Ayer, Djamboe Aer, Watery Rose Apple
Found Where:
Southern India to Eastern Malaysia
Characteristics:
10-20 ft tall, a small tree or a large bush.
short crooked trunk from which the branches grow low to the ground
leathery leaves, oblong and narrow a stems, grow opposite each other on thick short stems.
2-10 in. long, 1-6 in wide
pink-young and dull light-green- old
flowers grow in loose clusters of 3-7 at the end of the branches. Are yellow, pink, and white.
bloom two times each year (July and September).
fruit has a shiny-thin skin that's white- light red in color and has a pear-like shape
1 in long, 1-1.5 in wide
flesh is white or pink
crisp juicy sweet flavor
Facts:
its 1-3 seeds along with its roots are poisonous.
Common Names:
Aguila Harpía, Harpía
Found Where:
Central to South America from southern Mexico southward to eastern Bolivia, southern Brazil, to the northern most part of Argentina
Information:
Seven foot wing span
Powerful legs
Females weigh more than males
Females: 14-18 pounds
Males: 10-16 pounds
Body length is between 36-40 inches
The top feathers are a slate-black and the under feathers are a white to a light gray. A black band of feathers runs from the chest up to the neck. The tail feathers are long with a dark gray color with horizontal stripes running across them
Light gray feathers cover the legs until they reach the bright yellow feet that are as large as a humans' hand. Their feet have five inch long talons
Their wings have adapted for living in the forest (seven foot wing span small for most eagles) and is designed for speed and maneuverability
Harpy Eagles are carnivores and hunt up 19 different species of medium to large tree mammals
Near threatened animal list
Common Name:
Cobra
Found Where:
South East Asian Rainforest, usually located in the rivers or swampy areas.
Information:
The King Cobra can grow up to 12-18 feet, and their fangs can grow to about a half an inch
They are either olive, brown, or black and their underbellies are a pale yellow, or white.
Cobras are able to mate ate the age of four, and only mate once a year. They are able to lay 18-20 eggs.
When the eggs hatch the babies are 12-25 inches long.
The king cobras poison is a special adaption that can paralyze its preys nervous system.
The king cobra is also the only snake that will protect its eggs until thy hatch.
The King cobra is a carnivore that mainly eats snakes.

Threats to the Rainforest Biome
Endangered Species
Climate Change
Human Activity

Endangered Species
Climate Change
Human Activity
Abiotic Factors
Common Name:
Two-toed Sloth
Found Where:
The American Tropics
Information:
Gentle animal in nature
Fur
White/tan in face
Black/dark brown every where else
Back feet have five claws. Three of the claws are visible, two are not
The length of the Linn's Sloth is 28-29 inches long, and weighs anywhere from 9-19 pounds
Linn's Sloth looks fatter than what it actually is for it has an extra layer of skin
Moves slowly
Arms are long and have two small claws at the end of their hands used for defense, that is why they are called the two-toed sloth
Life span: 27-32 years
The two claws on its front paws help the sloth defend itself
The sloths fur has adapted so that the sloth blends in easily; also allows algae to help blend in
The sloth is an omnivore
Common Names:

Kapok, Ceiba, Silk-cotton tree
Found where
: South America, West Africa, Southeast Asia, Indonesian archipelago
Characteristics:
Can grow up to 150 feet tall, easily towering over other trees
Trunks are grey in color, cylindrical, smooth, and can grow to have the diameter of 9 feet
Large spines grow from the trunk to disencourage damage to the tree
Branches grow in horizantal tiers and spread out widely
They shed most to all of their leaves during the tropical dry season
The leaves are palmate and compound
5-9 leaflets
7-8 cm. long and 1-3.5cm. wide
Flowers usually open before the leaf appears
Flower has five pedals which are each about 2.5 cm. long
Facts:
The trees are used to make dugout canoes
Widely spread around the world and occupies an important niche in the rainforest biome
Common Name:
Banyan Tree
Found Where:
In all of the main rainforests.
Characteristics:
The strangler fig is one of the most important plant s in the rainforests, and there are over 1,000 different species of it.
A few times a year the figs contain fruit and that explains why they are so important to the animals of the rainforests.
70% of animals in the rainforests eat the strangler figs.
Strangler Figs can grow up to 148 feet.The strangler figs tree has waxy leaves that protect it from the dry winds and sunlight.
The strangler fig has a very extraordinary kind of flower, it actually has a male flower that contains pollen, and a female flower that contains seeds.
There are two different types of female flowers, one has a short style, and the other has a long style.
Taxonomy
plant
Taxonomy
animals
Kingdom-

Animalia
Phylum-

Chordata
Class-

Mammalia
Order-

Primates
Family-

Hominidae
Genus-

Pan
Species-

troglodytes





Kingdom-

Plantae
Phylum-
Magnoliophyta
Class-

Magnoliopsida

Order-

Urticales
Family-

Moraceae
Genus-

Ficus L.

Species-

aurea






Chimpanzee
Strangler Fig
There are many ways that human activity is harming the rainforests, and one of the main ones are that we are cutting down the trees to make room for our wants and needs.
Ways we are cutting down trees:
Logging

- Cuts down trees for building and other things.
Power Plants & Industries

- Cut and burn trees for electricity.
Subsistence farmers

- Use slash and burn to make room for crops.
Hydroelectric Projects

- Flood areas of the rainforests.
Picture of the trees that were burned and cut down.
Found Where:
Southeast Asian tropical rainforest of Sumatra and Borneo
Information:
They spend most of their life-time in the tree tops and descend very rarely
Largest tree dwelling ape in Southeast Asia
Height:
Both:can grow up to five feet tall
males usually only reach four feet
females only three feet
Weight:
Males can weigh up to 220 pounds
Females can weigh up to 110 pounds
Their arms are large and lanky, having a span of eight feet across when full grown. Their legs, though, are short and usually very weak
Long, thin red fur
Their Big toes are much like our thumbs; they are able to rotate and touch the ends of the other toes
Their adaptations are their strong arms for swinging from tree to tree and their curved feet with the "foot thumb" to be able to balance and grab the branches that they are standing upon
Can live up to 45 years in the wild and 50 in captivity
Is an omnivore
Common Names:
Javan or Moloch Gibbon, Owa, Wauwau
Found Where:
Scattered remains of the Java Rainforest
Information:
The female Gibbon sings a song several times in a day to indicate where her territory is located. The song is made up of a specific set of notes held for certain lengths of time; Starts off with a soft short note, then a series of eight short notes, followed by two longer notes which changes into two soaring notes, the song then ends with two shorter notes, a series of eight short notes and then a single last soft note. Only the females sings this song
the territory is stable and usually about 42 acres
If the male spots any strangers while the song is being sung, he chases them of with a single constant screeching noise
Small apes, no tail, and weigh about 13 pounds
Their bodies have adapted; long fingers and arms and lean bodies for swinging from tree to tree
Both males and females are light grey to white in color and grey to a black covering on their heads
Put on the red list of endangered species
they are very carefully watch (population wise) 50% chance or better of going endangered
They are omnivores, they will eat meat if fruit is scarce
Near endangered Animals:
Harpy Eagle
Endangered Animals:
Chimpanzee, Bengal Tiger
Critically Endangered Animals:
Orangutan, Silvery Gibbon
Endangered Plants:
Durians and Mangroves
Found Where:
Where rainforest meet ocean; all around the world
Characteristics:
Live on the edge of where the rainforest meets the ocean
Grow where other plants cannot
They protect coast lines and prevent erosion
Mangroves actually look like they grow on stilts
The stilt like object happens to be their roots, which are thin and grow up out of the water
Mangrove stores the salt from the salt water into its leaves, which it then later sheds to dispose of said salt
The seeds of the mangrove are tough and able to float
It is believed that the seed has originated from Southeast Asia and has slowly made its way around the world throught he ocean
One of the most biologically diverse forests
One of the most threatened habitats in the world
Common Names:
Mengaris, Honey Bee Tree, Deoh
Genus:
Koompassia
Species:
excelsa
Found Where:
Southeast Asia
Characteristics:
Can each the height of 250 feet
that is the equivilant of a 30 story building
Perfer damp locations; near rivers, in vallies, and the lower slopes of hills
Tualang trees are part of the legume family and are related to the peas
Their leaves are pinnate
4-5 leaflets growing along a central rib
The seeds are contained within large pods much like the peas
The trunks of the trees are covered in a smoth, silvery bark that is very slippery and discourages sun bears from climbing up the tall tree
the Sun Bear climbs the tree to try to reach the honey combs of the Asian rock bees
Branches start to grow at 100 feet up the trunk of the tree
The sap that the tree forms is irritating to human skin and forms a rash ofter contact
The combs that the bees for on the tree grow up to 6 feet across
People who live near and harvist the honey cherish and protect the trees
Found Where:
Open areas, lowland rainforests, and palm groves of South America
Information:
Largest of the Toucans
Can get up to twenty-four to twenty-six inches in lenth
The bill itself is bright orange and can get up to eight inches in length
Weighs about ten to seventeen onces
Its bill is lighter than what it looks
Has a hard outer exterior and a hollow inside
Has stong toes and feet to support its weight
Two in the front and two in the back
Tongue is feather light an dis around six inches long
Wings are short an drounded and has a long broad tail
Generally black in color with touches of white, scarlet, yellow, and blue
Live in flocks
Toco Toucan is a preditor but it also eats fruits and nuts, making it an omnivore
Found Where:
Tropical and subtropical areas of South America
Information:
Looks Like pig with largre pointy ears, fangs, and wings
About three inches in length with a wing span of eight inches. Weighs about one ounce
The bat is equipt with a clawed thumb that comes out of the front edge of the wing
It uses this thumb to climb around on its prey
It has a very short dark grey coat
Only has two point fangs in the front of its mouth
It has special saliva that runs in the groves of its tongue to stop the blood from clotting
It is a preditor and a prey. Its prey are eagles and hawks
lives in Mangrove Forests
Carnivore
Climate change effects the rainforest in more way than you think was possible. Clouds are forming high above tree tops, which results in slightly less rainfall in the year. Plants are not taking in as much carbin dioxide as they used to, in fact, they emmit more carbon dioxide than they take in, which also leads to different weather climates
Soil type:
Because there is rainfall year round, the soil gets stripped of many of its nutrients
Oxisols
Ultisols
Though even the clay has been stripped from and has been replaced by aluminum oxide
Physical Geography:

The land that rainforests' usualy cover are quite rocky. It is not uncommon that the rainforest covers mountains and hills as well.
Average yearly precipitation:
lies between 175 cm. (69 inches) and 250 cm. (99inches)
Average yearly temperature:

It lies between 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) and 93 degrees F (34 degrees C)
Analysis/Evaluation
Rainforests are believed to be the oldest and most complex land-based ecosystem on earth today. The rainforests contain over 30 million different species of plants and animals. Rainfoest have many medical plants include in it biodiversity that people use on a daily basis. Many of the foods that we consume daily are known to grow within the rainforest. The rainforest provides himes, medical supplies, food and much more.
Bibliography
google images.
www.blueplanetbiomes.org
Full transcript