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Animals (NS Unit 3)

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by

ELENA LÓPEZ HERRERA

on 4 October 2017

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Transcript of Animals (NS Unit 3)

Animals
VERTEBRATES
VERTEBRATE NUTRITION
They have a backbone and an internal skeleton.
mammals
birds
fish
reptiles
amphibians
Consumers
are living things that eat other living things.
Carnivores
Herbivores
Omnivores
they eat plants
they eat other animals
they eat meat
and plants
shape of the bird's beak
The shape of the bird's beak depends on what it eats.
Seeds eating
Carnivores
Fish eating
Nectar eating
Their beaks are short and thick.
Their beaks are strong, sharp and hooked.
Their beaks are large and long.
Their beaks are long and thin.
ruminants
A ruminant is any mammal that digests its food in two steps.
Ruminants digest food partly in the digestive system, but then it returns to the mouth. The animal chews the grass to break it down more and swallows it again. The grass returns to the digestive system and the process is completed.
Examples: cows, sheep, goats, giraffes, deer and camels.
VERTEBRATE RESPIRATION
All animals need to take in
oxygen
and expel
carbon dioxide
.
mammals, BIRDS and reptiles
Mammals, birds and reptiles use
lungs
to breathe. They take the oxygen from the air and take out the carbon dioxide.
fish
Fish breathe through the
gills
. They take the oxygen from the water and expel the carbon dioxide through the gills.
amphibians
Amphibians breathe through their gills when they are tadpoles but after the
metamorphosis
they develop lungs to breathe when they are adults. They also breathe through their moist skin.
VERTEBRATE REPRODUCTION
When the animals don´t have offspring (babies) they can become extinct.
Most animals reproduce
sexually
. The ova produced by the female are fertilised by the sperm, produced by the male.
Animals can be
VIVIPAROUS
,
OVIPAROUS
or
OVOVIVIPAROUS
.
VIVIPAROUS
Almost all
MAMMALS
are viviparous.
The embryo develops inside the mother. Babies are born live.
All baby mammals drink their mother’s milk until they can find their own food.
OVIPAROUS
Birds
,
fish
,
reptiles
and
amphibians
are oviparous.
The embryo grows inside an egg, outside the female’s body.
The shell or jelly around the egg protects the embryo. The egg contains the nutrients it needs to grow.
These eggs will hatch into new offspring.
Monotremes
are
mammals
that are
oviparous.

Equidna
Platypus
OVOVIVIPAROUS
These animals (i.e.
tiger shark, boa, manta ray
) produce eggs but the eggs develop and hatch inside the mother. Later, the mother gives birth to live offspring.
Some fish, reptiles and amphibians are ovoviviparous.
INVERTEBRATES
Invertebrates don’t have a backbone.
We can classify invertebrates into six groups:

ARTHROPODS
MOLLUSCS
OTHER INVERTEBRATE GROUP
(ECHINODERMS, ANNELIDS, SPONGES and
CNIDARIANS).
arthropods
This is the largest invertebrate group.
They have an external skeleton called an
exoskeleton
.
There are four subgroups:
crustaceans
,
myriapods
,
arachnids
and
insects
.
MOLLUCS
This large group of invertebrates is divided into three subgroups:
gastropods
,
bivalves
and
cephalopods
.
OTHER INVERTEBRATE GROUPS
crustaceans
Most
CRUSTACEANS
have two body parts: a
cephalothorax
and an
abdomen
.
Their
exoskeleton
is very hard.
They have
5 pairs of legs
and the front pair of legs has
claws
.
They also have
4 antennae
.
Myriapods
MYRIAPODS
have long, thin,
segmented bodies
.
They have
many pairs of legs
and
two antennae
.
They live in dark places.
arachnids
ARACHNIDS
have two body parts: a
cephalothorax
made up of the head and the thorax and an
abdomen
.
They have
4 pairs of legs
and up to 8 eyes.
insects
INSECTS
have three body parts: a
head
, a
thorax
and an
abdomen
.
All insects have two
antennae
and
three pairs of legs
(joined to the thorax).
Most insects have
one or two pairs of wings
.
gastropod
bivalves
cephalopd
ECHINODERMS
They live at the bottom of the sea. They are covered by a
hard
,
spiny skin
.
sponges
They live in water. They are the simplest invertebrates. They have no muscles, nervous system or circulatory system.
Cnidarians
CNIDARIANS (i.e. jellyfish and anemones) live in the sea. They have a soft,
jelly-like body
with one opening. This opening is surrounded by
venomous tentacles
.
annelids
They have a
long
,
soft body
with
moist skin
. Many annelids are
parasites
and live inside the bodies of other animals. Most annelids live in water, but they can also live on land.
Starfish
jellyfish
anemone
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