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Case Study 31 Homeostasis

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by

Bree Smith

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Case Study 31 Homeostasis

Homeostasis Case Study 31: Over Heated Professional Football Player for the Minnesota Vikings
Played offensive tackle
Had been playing football all his life
Collapsed during pre season camps in 2001 HOMEOSTASIS: THE BASICS HOMEOSTASIS is the maintenance of the relatively constant internal environment that is required for optimal function of the cells
Some examples of what homeostatic mechanisms maintain are : Temperature, Water and salt Concentrations, pH (acid-base balance), and Oxygen an carbon dioxide concentrations
In order for homeostasis to occur all of the parts of the body must work together. A basic example of this is:

Cell--> Tissues --> Organs--> Organ Systems TEMPERATURE CONTROL Joshua Wayne Fant Freshman pitcher for North General Texas College
Had been playing baseball since he was a boy
At first practice of the 2007 season he collapsed while practicing his throw, after going for a team run. Luke Michael Roach Had graduated from Carroll College, was applying to medical school.
Had been a runner since high school
Collapsed in 2001, during the last kilometre of the Chicago Marathon. Temperature is one of the most basic homeostatic mechanisms.
The temperature control mechanisms is based on a temperature in which the enzymes in the human body work best.
The enzymes in the human body usually work best at 37C
Body temperature is controlled by
--> sweating
--> shivering Sweating & Shivering The human body is designed to control the temperatures thought your body. Sweating and shivering are similar in what happens. Step 1: the hairs on your skin trap warm air in your body if they are standing up to reduce heat loss (cold) and if they are lying flat they are letting out warm air increasing heat loss (Hot) in this case Step 2: If the body is too hot, glands under the skin bring sweat onto the surface of the skin, to increase heat loss by evaporation. Sweat stops when your body temperature returns to normal Step 3: Blood vessels supplying blood to the skin swell or dilate. This causes more heat to be carried by the blood to the skin, where it can be lost to the air. Blood vessels can shrink down again. This reduces heat loss through the skin once the body’s temperature has returned to normal. Korey Damont Stringer What Happened?! What do these 3 athletes have in common? Besides being very active and health, each of these three athletes died from heat stroke.

Why did this happen? Temperature, water/salt concentrations, Glucose concentrations, pH balance and oxygen/carbon dioxide concentrations are all factors that must be regulated in an animal’s body in relation to the environments they live in It is important that these factors are maintained at the proper level or the proteins and enzymes on which the body relies will be denatured. Most animals are very efficient at maintaining homeostasis to regulate these factors however there are certain organisms that struggle to maintain homeostasis for certain environmental conditions. Worms, crabs, snails, and other marine invertebrates often struggle with regulating water and salt concentrations in their body. When water is evaporated from the pools of sea water in which these creatures live or when rain dilutes the salt concentrations of this water; these organisms will lose or gain water through osmosis. Organisms can’t be easily classified according to their body temperature as Warm or cold blooded. This is because some organisms whose family fall under cold blood can actually reach very high temperatures and vice-versa. Desert pupfish can reach a body temperature of 100°F (40°C) Organisms also can’t be classified by the constant body temperature as various organisms drop their body temperature in the cold in order to preserve energy. An example of this is the humming bird which can have a body temperature of 104°F (40°C) during the day and 55°F (13°C) during the night. Organisms are best classified by their source of body heat, (where they obtain their heat). Endotherms are organisms that produce their heat internally through a process of metabolic reactions. Mammals, birds, few fish such as tuna and some large sharks are endotherms. Ectotherms are organisms that derive heat externally through their environment. Lizards, insects ect. use the sun to warm up making them ectotherms. Typically endotherms have a genuinely constant body temperature as they can regulate it internally however ectotherms usually have a lower body temperature which will vary as it relies on the environment for heat which can vary as well. If the environment ectotherms live in is relatively constant such as deep in the ocean their body temperature will be as well. If conditions vary organisms can move around between cool spots and warms spots to try and maintain a more constant body temperature. During strenuous exercise, your muscles generate 10 to 15 times more heat then they would when you’re relaxing. This can be enough to raise your body temperature 2ºF roughly every 2 minutes. Consequences when your body temperature isn’t regulated – Revisiting Case study When your body reaches high temperatures your blood will begin to heat up, putting stress on your internal organs, and your muscles will start burning anything they can instead of oxygen to cool down. When your brain reaches temperatures over 104ºF your brain cells can actually begin dying and at this point your body will give up on trying to cool down, in some cases individuals stop sweating. Symptoms:
- Headache
- Vomiting
- Muscle Cramps
- Confusion
- Dizziness

More sever effects:
- Fainting
- Heat stroke
- Death
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