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World War I
Transcript of World War I
German subs taking out 900K pounds of British shipping per month; American convoy system helps
U.S. troops optimistic, don't know what they're in for...
American Expeditionary Force: General John J. Pershing
At first, plugging holes left open, soon assumed control of one segment of the front
Successful at holding back the last German push, drove Germans through Argonne Forest back toward their border
Armistice signed 11/11/18: surrender arms, navy and occupied territory
U.S. fatalities = 112,432
Selective Service Act (1917): all men 21-30 must register for draft; made up half of the U.S. force
400K African Americans serve in segregated units; DuBois believed service would earn them rights at home, but he was wrong
Women needed in work force; helps convince Wilson / Congress to support the 19th
Revolution in Mexico + job opportunities in U.S. = large Mexican migration
World War I War in Europe Victorious
World Power German Uboat A Neutral Nation? Economic Ties and Public Opinion A Neutral Nation? Debate over war and Election of 1916 A Neutral Nation? Wilson's "14 Point Plan": territorial demands and peace principles U.S. as a
neutral nation U.S.
waging a war
for peace U.S. as a
world power U.S. as an
nation June 28, 1914 Serbian terrorist assassinates Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife July 23-27, 1914 Austria threatens then invades Serbia August 1, 1914 Germany (Austria's ally) declares war on Russia (Serbia's ally) August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France (Russia's ally)
Invades neutral Belgium (fast way to Paris) August 4, 1914 Great Britain (allied with France
and Belgium) declares war on Germany Germany uses UBoats to block British supplies May 7, 1915: British passenger ship Lusitania is sunk, most drowned, 128 American victims; Wilson sends strong warning
August 1915: British ship Arabic is sunk, two Americans die; Wilson demands pledge from Germany to stop; they agree
March 1916: French ship Sussex is damaged by torpedo; Wilson threatens to cut off diplomatic ties with Germany; Germany replies with Sussex Pledge: promised not to fire on passenger or merchant ships without warning. British propaganda following
the sinking of the Lusitania Submarine Warfare Production of war material increases, economy booms after war begins; most sales to Britain and France
1914 to 1917: Trade with allies triples
J.P. Morgan et.al. loan $3 billion to France and Britain Public emphasis on bullying, autocratic nature of Kaiser Wilhelm and Germany Germans and Irish (hate the British) want a German victory
Most Americans want U.S. to remain neutral and for Britain and France to win the war Preparedness Anti-War U.S. military not prepared
National Security League:
expansion of the military
direct aid to Allies
Wilson changes his mind and supports them Midwest and West = base of support
Preparedness leads to war
Populists, Progressives, Socialists
Jane Addams, William Jennings Bryan "He kept us out of war":
Wilson's campaign slogan Republicans are reunited and pro-war
Wilson wins due to:
Lame Republican candidate
Peace sentiment across the U.S.
Wilson's progressive record Democratic strength (South/West) beats Republican dominance (East) A War for Peace: January to April, 1917 Mediation attempts by Wilson fail; commits to "peace without victory"
January: Germans decide to resume "unrestricted submarine warfare"
March: "Zimmerman Telegram" from Germany to Mexico; attempts to gain alliance with Mexico by promising return of AZ, NM and TX; British intercepted and published the note
March: Russian revolutionaries overthrow Czar Nicholas II and proclaimed a republic
March: Germany sinks five unarmed U.S. ships
April 2: Wilson asks for war declaration British King George V with his cousin, Czar Nicholas II A War for Peace: Mobilizing Rush job: Germany plans offensive on Western front AND submarine warfare
Could the U.S. mobilize fast enough to keep the Germans from winning?? Bernard Baruch Herbert Hoover Harry Garfield William Howard
Taft Fill in one personal detail and the job each man did Alienated and Isolationist: Postwar Problems War financed with income, corporate and excise taxes and Liberty Bonds
Committee on Public Information: George Creel leads propaganda agency
"Hate the Hun" campaign stepped up to vigilante action
Espionage Act (1917): 20 years for inciting rebellion or obstructing the draft
Sedition Act (1918): prohibits disloyal or abusive remarks about the U.S. government
2,000 jailed under this act, including Socialist Party leader Eugene Debs
Acts upheld by the Supreme Court in Schenck v. U.S. A War for Peace: Finance, Public Opinion,
Civil Liberties, Women, African Americans A War for Peace: Fighting the War A War for Peace: Armed Forces, Minorities Freedom of the seas
End to "secret treaties"
Adjust colonial claims
Self-determination for Austro-Hungarians
"A general association of nations...for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike..." i.e. The League of Nations Victorious World Power: The Treaty of Versailles The "Big Four" met daily; the other three wanted revenge and reparations, so Wilson has to give up most of his plan--but he insists on the League of Nations
June 1919 Peace Terms:
Germany gives up colonies in Asia and Africa, admits guilt, gets French occupation of Rhineland for 15 years, reparations payments
Territories freed from German, Russian, Austria-Hungary: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
Signers to join the League of Nations, ready to protect independence and territory of other nations Victorious World Power: Fighting for Ratification Republicans balk at the League, fear it interferes with U.S. sovereignty; leader: Henry Cabot Lodge Irreconcilables v. Reservationists Who?
Why? Treaty is defeated twice in 1919
Wilson refuses to accept reservations for a yes vote in 1920, and treaty is killed a third time
U.S. makes a separate peace with Germany in 1921 Returning soldiers knock women and minorities out of work
War production fell off, and business boom went flat
Farmers suffer from falling prices with European food back in the market
Spending spree leads to inflation and recession by 1921 RED SCARE
Anti-German feeling turns into anti-communist feeling
paranoia from bad peace process and fear of the Bolsheviks in Russia
Atty. Gen. Michael Palmer arrests 6,000 radicals, anarchists, socialists and labor leaders--"Palmer Raids"
Palmer lost credibility when riot predictions turn out false; worries about civil liberties calm the scare Alienated and Isolationist: Postwar Problems LABOR: Despite gains during Progressive rule, fear of uprising and several strikes kill the good will
Feb., Seattle: 60K shipyard workers, peaceful protest
Sept., Boston: police strike, Nat'l Guard breaks it up
Chicago: 40 killed, 500 wounded
increase in lynchings due to fear of returning soldiers and continued prejudice