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Blood Doping

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by

Riddhi Patel

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Blood Doping

BLOOD DOPING Performance Enhancing Drug Seminar What is blood doping? - increases the number of red blood cells

- these cells carry oxygen from lungs to the muscles where activity is carried out

- more oxygen in the blood improves a person's aerobic capacity (VO2 Max) and endurance Why would you want to increase an athlete's aerobic capacity? How to blood dope? AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DOPING
remove your own blood and freeze
thaw blood and inject back into the athlete aerobic capacity is a person's maximum capability to transport and use oxygen during increasing exercise

the more oxygen a body has to use, the greater the person will perform HOMOLOGOUS BLOOD DOPING
inject fresh blood directly into athlete's body growth hormone, "erythropoietin" completely replaced blood doping now

was originally used to stimulate red blood cell growth in kidney patients

now used to boost red blood cell counts before competition for athletes Replacements for blood doping Side Effects due to blood doping What are the impacts of homologous blood transfusions? Allergic reaction

Risk of blood-borne diseases (hepatitis C, B and HIV)

Blood contamination during preparation or storage

Certain medications used to increase red blood cells can reduce liver function and lead to liver failure, pituitary problems, and increases in cholesterol levels. • Can put themselves at significant health risks if the procedure is not done properly or if the blood is not handled or stored in a proper manner

Increased blood viscosity (thickness) is a major impact which
causes:

•Blood clots
•Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
•Pulmonary embolism
•Cerebral embolism
•Cerebrovascular accident
•Infections Preventative Techniques Educating the athlete

Having strict penalties for coaches, athlete and trainers; fines, prison terms and lifetime bans should be a part of a conviction for a second offense.

Better equipment/technology

More research should be done by the top scientist, physiologists and psychologists.

Athletes need more psychological training and coaching so they learn how to cope with pressure more effectively Blood doping started around the 1970s but was not outlawed until 1986.
The first known case related to doping occurred during the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow as Kaarlo Maanika was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5 and 10 kilometer track races.
During the 1984 Summer Olympics, American cyclist Pat McDonough admitted to blood doping .This later revealed that one third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they had won 9 medals after decades of losing since the 1912 Summer Olympics. Blood doping in the past
At the present time blood doping is a controversial issue.
Some types of blood doping cannot be perfectly detected which poses risks of wrong accusations.
With the new advances in science and sport medicines, it would only be harder to determine if an athlete has undergone doping procedures or has used legal alternatives to enhance their performances. Blood doping in the present Blood doping is used by athlete’s who seek a higher level of blood cells, which leads to more oxygenated blood, and a higher VO2 max. Since an athlete’s VO2 max is highly correlated with success in endurance sports, we find that blood doping is more common in sports such as swimming, long-distance running, cycling, rowing, and cross-country skiing. Blood Doping and Sports Since October 22, 2012 Lance Armstrong has been officially stripped of all of his Tour de France titles since 1998. According to the Washington Post, the president of the UCI, Pat McQuaid, said “Lance Armstrong has no place in cycling, and he deserves to be forgotten.” In addition to losing his titles, he is also no longer eligible to participate in any sport that uses the World Anti-Doping Code. As a response to the decisions of the USADA and UCI, Armstrong resigned from the Lance Armstrong Foundation and companies that sponsored him have revoked such contracts including his largest contributor, Nike. Lance Armstrong Doping Case German speed skater and five-fold Olympic gold medalist Claudia Pechstein was banned for two years in 2009 for alleged blood doping, based on irregular levels of reticulocytes in her blood.

Alexei Cherepanov, a 19-year-old New York Rangers prospect and Russian hockey player was discovered by Russian investigators to have been engaged in blood doping for several months. He had died on October 13, 2008, after collapsing on the bench during a game in Russia.

Tyler Hamilton turned in his 2004 Olympic Gold Medal to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency after admitting to doping during an interview. Other doping cases Homologous transfusions are prone to further side-effects: The End ! By: Arpit, Juhi, Mandeep, Raman, Riddhi and Zahra Blood doping and sports Blood doping is used by athlete’s who seek a higher level of blood cells, which leads to more oxygenated blood, and a higher VO2 max. Since an athlete’s VO2 max is highly correlated with success in endurance sports, we find that blood doping is more common in sports such as swimming, long-distance running, cycling, rowing, and cross-country skiing.
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