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ABO AL ABBAS MOSQUE BY MARIO ROSSI 1945
Transcript of ABO AL ABBAS MOSQUE BY MARIO ROSSI 1945
CONTEXT URBAN ANALYSIS
Solids and voids
•Modern Italian architect (1897-1961)
•Served as chief architect of religious Endowments (WAKF) after winning a competition held for that purpose
•He also designed and built Omar Makram Mosque in Cairo andAl kaed Ibrahim mosque in Alexandria and Ras El Tin
•Came to Egypt in 1921 as assistant decorator to his patron Ernesto VerucciBey when he was chief court architect
•Took individual assignments from the ministry of public works
•Later he became the chief architect of the WAKF administration
•He converted to Islam in 1946
He designed the mosque after spending several years in studying & understanding Islamic and Egyptian ornaments, during this time he wrote his famous book "Atlas For Architecture & Islamic Ornaments "
BUILDING HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
•Completed I 1945 after 16 years of construction
•It was sited in the burial place of an Andulasian teacher whose tomb was burned down after a lighting strike
•It replaced a much smaller structure dating from 1767 which burnt down during an electrical storm
•The mosque was raised on a crypt , or undercroft, which did not form part of the original building but was added to give monument-ability by raising the level of the floor
•After King Fouad I’s reform, McLean
drew a plan providing a square of 43,200 square meters, in the area where a small mosque stood. It was called “Square of Mosques” because it had to hold five smaller mosques as well as the Abou al Abbas mosque.
•It was built with an octagonal plan above an area of 3000 square meters
•The original design included a central dome with double skin thatwas never realized probably because of calculation errors: a lantern replaced it. Obviously roofs, pointed arches and the hemispherical double shell were made of reinforced concrete, as it is clear from the executive drawings and the photographs of the building yard. In particular, the roof is the Hennebique type, with air space and Vierendel beams
•The continuous foundation is in reinforced concrete on piles (Fig. 8). It seems to emulate an earthquake proof solution. It is known that Alexandria in the past had been hit several times by earthquakes of great intensity; it was known that the soil is unstable in nature. (Turchiarulo, in prep.) The Manualedell’Architettoby Daniele Donghi, found in Rossi’s private library, is illuminating in this regard. It is a reflection of this complex historical moment of transition. Donghi influenced the technical and construction choices of Rossi and the architects of his generation, as in the case of seismic construction models. Between 1900 and 1904 Donghi was the director of the Porcheddu Company, in Milan, Italian holderof the Hennebique patent. Contrary to those who believed a building should be left free to move from the ground,
•The designer borrowed the octagonal shape from the ottoman architect Sinan, who built his domes directly over the corners of the octagon
•While Rossi left enough headroom for the ceiling and built his dome in the center supported by stone poles covered with marble leaving room for the corridor circulating the prayer grounds, hince allowing the whole area to be a prayer ground
•He was also influenced by the octagonal shape by the Dome of the Roch in Jerusalem & the Oljeytu memorial at Sultaniyeh in Azerbaijan
•He was influenced by the Ottoman directives of surrounding the mosque with a walled garden so that
.1Protect the mosque and its holiness
•It was built in an efficient way so that no additional building extensions may be allowed
•It reaches 26 m high
•With a sizable chandelier hanging from its interior 24 m above the floor, similar to the one hanging in Mohamed Ali mosque
•In order that the dome could carry such a considerable weight of bronze, copper & crystal, Rossi provided additional support through 8 granite poles specially carved in Italy
•Each column boasts a base and capital of bronze
•We can see Rossi's influence in the pointed Arches which he invented•Small domes lend emphasis to four sides of the octagon
•The southwest dome lies the tomb of the city's patron saint
•The grave in the crypt beneath is marked by a Turkysh style (tabut) which if removed ,might disclose the primitive gravestone underneath
•The building determined new criteria which is cancelation of the mosque patio due to the lack of space
•But patios didn't disappear totally as they were originaly used for ceremonial prayers, if the mosque was full individuals pray outside & around the mosque
•The richest effect is reserved for the mihrab which is framed in profusion of joggled variously colored marbles producing an overpowering effect on the beholder
•Rossi was supported with a team f craftmen in metalwork, marble, and wood who fashioned the bronze grilles, the brass chandeliers, the marble revetments and the items of liturgical furniture
•The niche is flanke by wooden pulpit (minbar) and (soret el korsi)
•The encircling embrace of columns and arches carried the eye tward that focal point where the niche perfectly articulated within the whole
•Therefore he managed to utilize the available space in the best possible way
One of the main characteristics is the reappearance of arabesque in the Egyptian mosque in the interior and exterior
The Italian contributions to the Egyptian Architecture and Modern Heritage