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Robert Oppenheimer & Czar Bomb
Transcript of Robert Oppenheimer & Czar Bomb
[Czar Bomb] Jamie Valenzuela Julien LeBeouf
Kimo Morales How has this concept influenced society? What concepts of Nuclear Chemistry allow this to happen? The main concept for any nuclear device is fission, but for ours specifically, it's fusion. Without the discovery of the fissionable isotopes uranium-238 and plutonium-239, nuclear devices (as well as power plants) would have been a figment in the heads of the scientists at Los Alamos. Another important feature is the manufacturing of artificial isotopes. It took years to refine enough uranium for scientists to build one nuke, without artificial developed fuel, it could take years to build one nuke. Also, another important the fission detonation is essential to kickstart the fusion detonation. Without this essential kickstart, a hydrogen bomb will fizzle, not create the largest and most violent explosion created by man. The concept of nuclear weapons was designed by the Los Alamos scientists, headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. But as for the Czar Bomb was not discovered, instead it was developed based upon the principles of the Castle Bravo nuclear device (first fission-fusion hydrogen bomb created) detonated in 1954 by the USA. After a brief hiatus beginning in 1958, Russian President Nikita Krushchev and Senior Executive Weapons Designer Andrei Sarkhov as well as a panel of top nuclear scientists met in July, 1951 to discuss the revival of the Soviet nuclear program. He (Krushchev) began with a simple statement,”Let us show these imperialists what we can do.” He commanded that the program would resume in that Jly. This was the official reinstatement of the Soviet Nuclear Program and the beginning of the Czar Bomb's development. Andrei Sarkhov played a monumental role in its development, overseeing and guiding the weapons development team during the process. He was the Soviet Oppenheimer. Later, after witnessing firsthand the destruction wraught by the Czar Bomb, Andrei became a staunch oppositionist against nuclear weapons. Who Discorvered It? When was it discovered? The Concept of the Bomb The Czar Bomb was originally supposed to be a 100 megaton hydrogen bomb device, but there is something quite wrong with detonating a nuclear device that could potentially create a mushroom cloud so large it exits Earth's atmosphere. How a hydrogen bomb works is through the property of fusion: less massive atoms come together to form more massive atoms, and in doing so, release incredible amounts of energy. But, they are unique from fission bombs in that, in order to get started, a fusion reaction needs a powerful kick. So, inside a hydrogen bomb's casing, there are 2 types of bombs: a "standard" Teller-Ulum fission bomb (Trinity type bombs) and an implosion type hydrogen bomb (Castle Bravo).
The fission begins first, and in doing so, sets off the much more powerful hydrogen bomb. Both of these bombs are surrounded by a "tamper"- a material, usually uranium-238, to help retain the bomb's explosion as well as expanding when heated, helping control the explosion somehwat. When the fission bomb goes off, gases, heat and radiation produced by it squeeze the tamper around the fusion core, exerting exteremely high pressure and heat on it, which starts more fission inside the fusion core. The plutonium fuel rod and the lithium-duterate fuel surronding it fuse, which creates such helium, x-rays, and a heck of a lot of heat. This whole process happens in less than a few nanoseconds (estimates put it about 10 nanoseconds, 10 billionths of a second.)
So, by applying a lead tamper instead of a uranium one, it reduced the yield of the bomb by aproximately 50%. The fast-fissioning uranium was, in effect, slowed down by the lead tamper, as it had to first radiate through the thick lead tamper to reach the fusion core. While trying to accompish this, the Soviets hadn't just reduced the yield of the bomb, but also made it cleaner, eliminating 97% of the fallout; this meant that not only was the Czar bomb the biggest nuclear device ever detonated by Mankind, it was the cleanest and most efficent.]
The power of the Czar Bomb is like the ancient Greeks used to attribute to Zeus's lightning bolts . In the detonatonating the bomb, it released more than 10 times the combined explosives used in WWII. People were reporting 3rd degree burns from 100 kilometers (62 miles) away. The fireball itself, about 1 second after detonation, reached 4 miles across. It gave so much light that it it was visible 2000km (1,242 miles) away. It flattened the Island of Novaya Zemlya, and turned solid rock into ash. The mushroom cloud reached 64 kilometers, 210,000 ft, into the atmosphere. The blast wave created sesmic shocks (keep in mind that this bomb was deployed about 2 miles in the air) that registered around the world. Twice. The blast wave went through the Earth's core, reflected off the crust, came back, then reflected again. When the blast wave hit the plane, it temporarily disabled the plane's systems due to the EMP effect, dropping it a half a mile and almost killing the pilot. This bomb, if harnessed and conatained, would have been 1.4% of the power output of the Sun, about 33.8 yottawatts. A yottawott is currently the largest watt mesurement we have, 10^24 watts. The sun's luminosity is about 384.6 YW.
Everything about The Father of All Bombs was custom built for it, from the specially modified Tu-95 drop plane, to the 800kg parachute. Even more amazing than the power of this mega H-bomb was the construction. From start to finish, the construction of a bomb that could shake the world took only less than 16 weeks. Development and assembly took place simultaneously, assuring that it would be done as quickly as possible. What are the positives and negatives of this concept? (Can it save lives, are there safety concerns) The negatives of this technology are signinficantly more evident than the positives. The fallout is a striking example; If this bomb were to be detonated at full yield, the results would have been devastating on the global fallout levels, spiking the world's total fallout levels by 25% from previous levels. This may cause a permanent nuclear winter, destroying all crops on Earth and leaving humans in a terrible, fractured ecosystem. But another, significantly more deadly threat is hidden, but still ever present. Many scientists agree, if a powerful enough bomb, say a 100 MT bomb, were to strike the Earth in a precise location, it could crack the Earth into pieces. This is a real possibility of continued nuclear war if it were to break out into the future. This is an obvious red flag to nuclear scientists as such an event would undoubtably be fatal to all of Mankind and all speices on this planet.
However, fusion brings with it great possiblities, should we be able to put aside our petty wars and disagreements. Fusion could provide humans with an access to a near limitless resource, as hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Even today, scientists are attempting to find a way to slow a fusion reaction and contain it to harvest energy from it, rather than have it as a weapon. Cold fusion, a sci-fi staple, is an (hypothetical) advanced form of fusion, not requiring the massive heat and pressure nessecary to create standard fusion, instead creating portable fusion generators with on demand access to your own portable sun, without the 10 million degree celsius heat. Biographical Information of Julius Robert Oppenheimer: birth, death, education, family, retirement, etc.
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"J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904 - 1967)." J. Robert Oppenheimer. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013.
"J. Robert Oppenheimer Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013.
"J. Robert Oppenheimer." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013.
"The Nuclear Weapon Archive." - A Guide to Nuclear Weapons. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.
"The World’s Biggest Bomb." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. Born: April 22, 1904 in New York City, New York
Death: February 18, 1967 in Princeton (victim of cancer)
Education: He attended Ethical culture school in New York where he studied arts and science, his lifelong devotion. Later, after his broad list of achievements, the school renamed itself in his honor to the Oppenheimer Cultural School. In 1922 he attended Harvard University, where he completed his bachelor’s degree in 3 years. He also required 2 years at the Cambridge University, and attended the University of Gottigun 1927
Family: Father was a German immigrant and a wealthy textile importer The Czar Bomb really opened people's eyes to the danger of nuclear bombs and the consequences of nuclear warfare. We could make bombs that emulated the power of the Sun, wipe out entire countries and destroy the local ecosystem so that nothing may ever grow there again in one stroke. This bomb's most significant impact on society was its role in the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This stated that all future nuclear weapons cannot under any circumstances be tested above ground, underwater, in the atmosphere, or in space. This eventually lead to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, banning all and any forms of nuclear tests. What is radiation? What are the different types? Radiation: the penetrating particles and rays emitted from nuclei.
Alpha (α): Helium particle is emitted in alpha radiation with 2 protons and 2 neutrons and has +2 charge. Short wave lengths cannot penetrate through paper. (0.05mm)
Beta(β): Electron is emitted after the breaking apart of a neutron in an atom. -1 charge and cannot penetrate through wood. (4mm)
Gamma (γ): A high energy photon is emitted along with an alpha or beta particle. Gamma rays have no charge, no mass and are electromagnetic. Can penetrate through anything only several meters of concrete or several centimeters of lead can slow them down.
Robert Oppenheimer's research into the field of nuclear physics as well as atomic study was noted as being exceptionally enterprising. He was one of the founding fathers of American theoretical physics. He became an authority on a staggering amount of physics, such as astrophysics, nuclear physics, etc. His contributions to the field of the fledgling field of quantum theory have stood out as notable examples of his brilliance. In the 1930s, Oppenheimer published a paper based up his theory of "quantum tunneling". He was the first to write papers predicting the existence of quantum tunnels, what we now know as black holes.
Oppenheimer had been serving as the director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, giving his administrative and technical talents to the young physicists who gathered there. However, in 1943, when the Manhattan Project and work on it was mostly theory and supposistion, Oppenheimer was called to lead the isolated labratory of Los Alamos.
Oppenheimer was tasked with developing a method to reduce the amount of material needed to achieve a supercritical mass, as well as creating a new way to deliver said bomb to a target.
Los Alamos soon became a hub of activity into the frontiers of nuclear physics. Its population swelled to include not only scientists, but their families and a wide variety of workers. Oppenheimer attracted the best and brightest, such as the legendary Albert Einstein. Guided under the brilliant vision of Oppenheimer, they were able to replace the obsolete "gun firing mechanism" with a radical new detonation type: an implosion type bomb. As the outside source ignited, it compressed the core while the tamper reflected the heat and energy back into the core, building it up until it achieved super-critical mass and detonated. This new way allowed for far less fissionable material to be used up in a manner that provided a reliable method of detonation.
After WWII, Oppenheimer promoted to Chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission. In this position, he began to voice his disdain towards the idea of a hydrogen bomb. The US, at the height of its sweep of McCarthyism and communist fear, accused him of being a communist. Oppenheimer then lost his prestigious position as well as his security clearance. Many scientists, horrified at what had happened to him, began to voice their displeasure with the descision of the AEC. In an attempt to adress this grave offence, Lyndon B Johnson awarded Oppenheimer with the AEC's Enrico Fermi award, a very honorific merit that represents the pinnacle of scientific achievement.
Describe nuclear transformations and the idea of half lives. Describe the similarities and differences between fission and fusion. Research Information: What did he discover? Who did he work with? Where was the research done? What effect did it have on history? Did he recieve awards/honors, was there any backlash to the discovery? Work Cited Both:
Release high amounts of heat, x-rays, light, and radiation.
In weapons, they both utilise uranium as well as plutonium.
Both are types of nuclear energy. Fusion:
Significantly "Cleaner" in bombs
Combining two lesser masses into a larger mass
Fuel is more abundant(if we can learn to harness hydrogen)
Fusion naturally occurs in nature (stars)
Yields 3-4 times as much energy as a fission reaction.
Much tougher to begin a fusion reaction Fission:
Fission is very dirty, leaving a lot of leftover isotopes, radiation, etc.
Fission requires difficult to aquire fuel sources, they are rare on Earth
It takes a large, stable isotope and splits it into smaller, unstable isotopes which in turn split, creating a chain reaction.
Fission doesn't normally occur in nature.
Fission is inefficent compared to fusion.
Fission requires significantly less heat and pressure to begin a reaction than fusion. Radioactive decay: Nuclei decay by turning a neutron to a proton to emit a beta particle. (beta emission)
Alpha emission: Mass number decreases by four and the atomic number decreases by two in order to balance the neutron to proton ratio.
Half-life: The time required for half of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay. After every half-life half of the existing radioactive atoms have decayed into atoms of a new element. This will go on indefinitly. THE CZAR BOMB
Its hard to believe that a technology with a capacity to cause so much damage could one day power our world. A comparison of Megatons to Kilotons 50 MT 40 MT 30 MT 20 MT 10 MT At 00:40, thats the view from 99 miles away. Oppenheimer's Implosion Type Device Gun-Type Fission Weapon I F@$%!N LOVE SCIENCE 1MT=100KT