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North Africa & Southwest Asia - Lecture Slides

Northwest Africa & Southwest Asia
by

Joshua Lohnes

on 30 September 2016

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Transcript of North Africa & Southwest Asia - Lecture Slides

St. Katherine
Middle East
"Arab Spring"
"War on Terror"
"Israeli - Palestinian"
Water
Fossil Fuels
Tourism
Early Civilizations
Monotheism
Arabian Nights
North Africa & Southwest Asia
Different
perspectives
Conflict
Resources
History & Culture
What has informed my personal perspective?
Egypt's Sinai Desert
http://sheikhsina.com
Livelihoods
Water
Drug
Fields
Nile Valley
Migrants
Camels
Tourism
Nile
Pipeline
Wells
regional history
Islam
Judaism
Christianity
Egypt
Romans
Nabatean
Israel
Pharohs
Byzantine
British
Ottoman
Bottled Water
urbanization
I want to understand this
WVU Geography
Need Tourists to buy water?
Why is this happening ?
Who wins? Who loses?
How does it affect you and me?
21 Country Region
Achieved independence late
Driest region in the world
Political Boundaries
Climate Zones
Water conflicts
Nile, Euphrates, Tigris, Jordan - Lifelines
Nile: Colonial agreements downriver advantage
Euphrates: Ottomon control upriver advantage
Jordan: multifaceted conflicts
home to earliest
agricultural societies
citrus
grapes
olives
vegetables
cotton
barley
wheat
fruit trees
Rivers
Coasts
Ethnic Fragmentation
Religious Diversity
&
Mt. Sinai
Monastery
Tourists
Growing town
Sedenterization
Changing Livelihoods
Thoughts about...
Desalinization
Groundwater
Rain
Dams
History of conquest
20th century European colonialism
1850
1950
1900
1869 Suez Canal
"Highway to India"
2000
1908 Oil discovered in Iran
1902 Aswan Dam
1948 Israel established
1914-18 WWI
ottoman empire & germans
v.
french, english, arab allies
1939 -45 WWII
Lose colonial hold
Enter bi-polar world
1962 Algerian Independence
500,000 casualties
French crisis
1956 Egypt nationalizes
Suez Canal
1967 Six Day War
Israel controls Sinai
1978 Camp david accords
Peace between Egypt and Israel
Sinai back to Egypt
Massive military aid to both sides
2003 US invades Iraq
2011 "Arab Spring"
Water Scarcity?
Fragmented - Ties of Kinship, not of State
Multi-ethnic and Multi-religious region
Proxy Conflicts
Suez Canal
OIL
WATER!

SUMMARY
Economic Geography
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Topography
Atlas Mountains, Algeria
Nile River, Egypt
Gulf of Aquaba, Red Sea
Mt. Ararat, Turkey
Sahara Desert, Morocco
Tigris River, Iraq
Jewish History
Palestinian Refugees
World Power Proxies
Seperation Wall - Enclaves
Hezbollah
Hamas
Israel
Palestinian Authority
Diaspora
Strong cultural/religious identity
Zionism
Persecution
Only ones allowed to lend $ in Medieval Europe
History of massacres and expulsion (1096, 1147, 1251,1320,1396, 1421...)
Historical Scapegoats
1870s discussion of establishing homeland
Balfour Declaration
Battles for land begin
UN resolution 194
1946-1948 war - 85% fled from homes
15% W. Bank (770,000) and Gaza (1,100,000)
Lebanon(425,000), Syria (472,000), Jordan (2,000,000)
"Nakba" - Disaster
Enduring Conflict
"Intifada" (1987-1993) - Oslo accords
2nd Intifada (2000-2005)
Hamas v. Palestinian Authority (2006 elections)
Gaza (2007 Hamas control)
Population
Political Geography
477 Million
Coastal Zones,
River valleys
Mountainous regions (orographic rainfall)
Effort to expand livable areas is costly
3.1 children per woman
Fastest growth rate after sub-saharan Africa
Young population
Straining resources (water, food, housing, jobs, medical etc.)
Fewer than 50% women work outside the home
Increased Urbanization
Oil wealth (Gulf states)
Agricultural modernization
70 % live in urban setting
High disparity between rich and poor neighborhoods
Migrants
88% of labor force on Arabian Penninsula
8:1 immigrant ration in Dubai
Refugees - Largest number in the world
Palestinian, Iraqi, Syrian, Lebanese, Sudanese,Afghani
High disparity between rich and poor
Many living on $1/day
Growing middle class in some countries
Gender Inequality
Work different types of jobs
Household work not taken into consideration
Poor economic diversification
Little investment in social programs, healthcare, education
Big Investments in Military
High subsidies for basics (food, energy, water)
Factors leading to the "Arab Spring"
Economic Decline
Unemployment
High Food Prices
Poor labor conditions
Demographics
Dictatorship or Monarchy
Human Rights Violations
Government Corruption

social networks?
New balance of power?
Same game different name?
Shifting Alliances
Ongoing conflict

Syrian Conflict
Full transcript