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North Africa & Southwest Asia - Lecture Slides
Transcript of North Africa & Southwest Asia - Lecture Slides
"War on Terror"
"Israeli - Palestinian"
North Africa & Southwest Asia
History & Culture
What has informed my personal perspective?
Egypt's Sinai Desert
I want to understand this
Need Tourists to buy water?
Why is this happening ?
Who wins? Who loses?
How does it affect you and me?
21 Country Region
Achieved independence late
Driest region in the world
Nile, Euphrates, Tigris, Jordan - Lifelines
Nile: Colonial agreements downriver advantage
Euphrates: Ottomon control upriver advantage
Jordan: multifaceted conflicts
home to earliest
History of conquest
20th century European colonialism
1869 Suez Canal
"Highway to India"
1908 Oil discovered in Iran
1902 Aswan Dam
1948 Israel established
ottoman empire & germans
french, english, arab allies
1939 -45 WWII
Lose colonial hold
Enter bi-polar world
1962 Algerian Independence
1956 Egypt nationalizes
1967 Six Day War
Israel controls Sinai
1978 Camp david accords
Peace between Egypt and Israel
Sinai back to Egypt
Massive military aid to both sides
2003 US invades Iraq
2011 "Arab Spring"
Fragmented - Ties of Kinship, not of State
Multi-ethnic and Multi-religious region
Atlas Mountains, Algeria
Nile River, Egypt
Gulf of Aquaba, Red Sea
Mt. Ararat, Turkey
Sahara Desert, Morocco
Tigris River, Iraq
World Power Proxies
Seperation Wall - Enclaves
Strong cultural/religious identity
Only ones allowed to lend $ in Medieval Europe
History of massacres and expulsion (1096, 1147, 1251,1320,1396, 1421...)
1870s discussion of establishing homeland
Battles for land begin
UN resolution 194
1946-1948 war - 85% fled from homes
15% W. Bank (770,000) and Gaza (1,100,000)
Lebanon(425,000), Syria (472,000), Jordan (2,000,000)
"Nakba" - Disaster
"Intifada" (1987-1993) - Oslo accords
2nd Intifada (2000-2005)
Hamas v. Palestinian Authority (2006 elections)
Gaza (2007 Hamas control)
Mountainous regions (orographic rainfall)
Effort to expand livable areas is costly
3.1 children per woman
Fastest growth rate after sub-saharan Africa
Straining resources (water, food, housing, jobs, medical etc.)
Fewer than 50% women work outside the home
Oil wealth (Gulf states)
70 % live in urban setting
High disparity between rich and poor neighborhoods
88% of labor force on Arabian Penninsula
8:1 immigrant ration in Dubai
Refugees - Largest number in the world
Palestinian, Iraqi, Syrian, Lebanese, Sudanese,Afghani
High disparity between rich and poor
Many living on $1/day
Growing middle class in some countries
Work different types of jobs
Household work not taken into consideration
Poor economic diversification
Little investment in social programs, healthcare, education
Big Investments in Military
High subsidies for basics (food, energy, water)
Factors leading to the "Arab Spring"
High Food Prices
Poor labor conditions
Dictatorship or Monarchy
Human Rights Violations
New balance of power?
Same game different name?