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3 Models of supervision
Transcript of 3 Models of supervision
Stemming directly from the major theoretical schools of counseling
Natural extension of therapy (technique used in therapy translates to supervision)
Psychotherapy- Based Models
Social Role Models
Roles supervisors play
5 areas of development
Identifying current level of the student/provide appropriate feedback
Models of Supervision:
A Comparative Discussion
By: Rhonda Romano
Examples of Psychotherapy-based Models
Integrated Development Model (IDM)
The Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth Model
The Ronnestad and Skovholt Model
Examples of Developmental Models
The Discrimination Model
The Hawkins and Shohet Model
The Holloway Systems Model
Examples of Social Role Models
Exploration of the supervisory relationship as it relates to the clinical relationship is essential to the tasks of supervision
Tends to the supervisee's countertransference experience
Supervisor learns and mentors (teach- treat boundary)
Ekstein & Wallerstein (1972) - most widely accepted model psychodynamic model
Increasing self-awareness, thereby decreasing anxiety
Supervisor has greater power
Cognitive Behavior Supervision
Proficient counselor performance is more a function of learned skills than a “personality fit.”
Utilizes the supervisor as “expert.” (opposite of the client centered model) Directive/active
Counseling skills are behaviorally definable and are responsive to learning theory, just as are other behaviors.
Supervision should employ the principles of learning theory within its procedures.
Supervisor is responsible for doing whatever necessary to develop a relationship with the supervisee that is based on trust.
CBT is used with supervisees to increase their self-awareness and to identify and modify beliefs that interfere with their role as counselors.
developing the relationship
planning the session on the basis of ones' conceptualization
structuring the session
collaboratively setting homework
Examples of Psychotherapy-based Models
Clinical and Administrative Supervisor
Medical Coordinator and Administrative Supervisor
The ability to go to one supervisor for multiple issues and know they will be taken care of
Personal problems interfear in work supervisors are to address, if counseling is needed referral is appropriate
Clear Power differentials
Terminate professional relationship for personal
Major groups prohibit sexual relationships:
American Counseling Association
American Psychological Association
Association for Counselor Education & Supervison
PRO vs CON
Those who find psychodynamic therapy a good fit tend to swear by it.
It attempts to address the root causes of psychological issues compared to CBT. As such, the benefits are thought to be broader-based and longer lasting.
Psychodynamic therapy is particularly good for more general distress, psychosomatic conditions, and personality patterns or tendencies such as repeated difficulties in one’s work or relationships.
While psychodynamic therapy can be brief, it does tend to take more time than CBT.
Is there a difference between sexual harassment and consensual sexual relationships, or are all sexual advances in unequal power relationships really a form of sexual harassment?
Some people don’t find psychodynamic therapy to be a good fit. They may find it difficult to accept that factors outside of their awareness influence their thoughts and behaviors. Others are reluctant to think about their childhood or the relationship that develops with their therapist.
Psychodynamic therapy is less structured than CBT and some prefer the more focused and directive approach of CBT.
PRO vs CON
Many people cannot afford or don’t want to go to ongoing therapy (six months or longer) and prefer to try to use the more directive skills learned in a time-limited (e.g., 12-16 weeks) CBT treatment on their own.
CBT is particularly good for recent onset and relatively circumscribed issues or specific goals.
While some people find CBT helpful, others dislike it, feeling they are being talked out of their emotions.
Some find that CBT’s focus on positive thinking feels too superficial to them, minimizing the importance of their personal history.
While it is collaborative, CBT fosters a more independent effort on the part of the client. As such, it involves less reliance on the therapist than psychodynamic therapy. Some people prefer this.
Others find they don’t like the way CBT downplays emotions while seemingly overemphasizing the logical and thought-oriented components of one's mental life.
Still others find they don’t get the results they desire with CBT and find that while psychodynamic therapy is more of an investment, it is more effective for them.
Integrative Developmental Model of Supervision (IDM)
Counselor development occurs across four stages with three overriding structures
Supervisees have limited training Supervisee’s “Tell me what to do” orientation
Supervisees are transitioning away from high dependence “Frequent shift between autonomy and independence”
Supervisees are focusing more on a personalized approach Let’s figure this out together approach
Supervisees are integrating across all three domains
PRO vs CON
*Primary principle is the assumption of on-going growth
Organized and structured way to assess supervisee's growth and determine what they may need in terms of supervision
Clear and flexible conceptual model
stresses the need to utilize skills and approaches that correspond to the level of the supervisee.
Focuses predominantely on the development of graduate students in training, with little application to post-degree supervision
Limited suggestions for specific supervision methods that are applicable at each supervisee level
Based in Psychotherapy Model
focusing on similar techniques of the theory
More structured than the Psychodynamic Model
Focus on growth and change
Integrated Developmental Model
Cognitive Behavioral Model
*Purpose is to prepare supervisee's in counseling and minimize the obstacles for growth for the supervisee
Which of these models would I choose to employ as a supervisor?
Psychodynamic- adopt theory and believe
approach with supervisee's when problem arrises with client-barrier
Cognitive Behavior- goal setting, agenda- flexible
Developmental- teacher, meeting students/supervisee's where they are- assess
Pearson, M Quinn. (2006)Psychotherapy -driven supervision: Integrating counseling theories into role based supervision,Journal of Mental Health Counseling 241-252.
McNeill, W. Brian & Worthen, Vaughn. (1989) The parallel process in psychotherapy supervision. Professional Psycholog Reasearch and Pracitce pp. 329-333
Smith, L Kendra.(2006) A brief summary of supervision models. www.gallaudet.edu
Roughton, Ralph (2012) The analytic attitude: The essence of what we mean by 'psychoanalysis' Atlanta Psychoanalysis.
Wahesh, Edward (2012) Use of cognitive-behavioral techniques in clinical supervision. www.cedresearch-practice.blogspot.com/2012/01
Pscyhotherapy Based Models
Cognitive Behavioral Approach
Developmental Based Model
Integrated Developmental Approach/Model