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Monera (Bacteria)

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Carl Son

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of Monera (Bacteria)

Much like in a plant cell, the cell wall protects the bacteria. Bacteria can be classified into two groups, Gram-negative (having thin cell walls) and Gram-positive ( having thick cell walls).
The cell's plasma membrane allows nutrients to pass in and waste to pass out.
The cytoplasm, made mostly out of water and in which other organelles float.
Some bacterium have a flagellum, a tail like structure that spins to help it move through liquids. Some cells have multiple flagella.
Some bacterium have pili, hollow hairlike projections that help the cell stick to others. A special pilus, the sex pilus, allows the cell to transfer DNA and reproduce if the bacteria can use conjugation reproduction.
Storage granules store nutrients and other reserves inside the cell.
A single bacteria cell will have thousands of ribosomes that produce protein for it.
Plasmids, small fragments of DNA, carry out certain functions around the cell. These can be transferred from one bacteria cell to another by pilus.
Some bacterium have an extra protective layer around the cell, called the capsule. This layer protects it from white blood cells and other things.
The nucleoid of a bacteria cell does not have a surrounding membrane, like those of other animal kingdoms. It contains RNA, proteins, and a double strand of DNA, called the genophore. This DNA strand contains most of the cell's genetic information.
Means of obtaining energy
Some bacteria needs carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and other micro nutrients to survive.

Some bacteria get their energy by absorbing the suns light, oxidizing in organic substances, or consuming the materials around them.

Autotrophs make their own food with their energy in their body

Some bacteria use photosynthesis to obtain their energy which is combining water and the suns rays

Other Characteristics of Life
Phyla of Bacteria
Cellular Information
There are three main types of bacterial cell shapes:
1.) Bacillus- Rod like, or pill like shaped bacterium.
2.) Coccus- Globular or spherical shaped bacterium
3.) Spirillum- Helix or spiral shaped bacterium.

General Information
Monera (Bacteria)
By Benjamin Dubner, Carlson Cheng, Elias Navarro, Evan Jerista, and Max Ufberg.
The Kingdom of Bacteria can be divided
into two main groups:
Beneficial Bacteria and Pathogenic Bacteria
This kingdom of bacteria is also referred to as Monera. The modern definition of Monera is a prokaryotic single celled organism that has a nutritional mode of absorption, photosynthesis, or chemosynthesis. The name "Monera" comes from the greek word "moneres" (made in 1869), meaning single or solitary. Examples of Modern Monera include: germs, E.Coil, Chlamydia, Staphy Lococcus, and Yeast. Germs carry viruses and give illnesses to other living things. One type of E.Coil is found in the large intestine and produces vitamin K.
Unique and Interesting facts:
1.) Ferdinand Cohn classified 4 groups of bacteria, spherical, short rods, threads, and spirals. (different shapes).
2.) A perfect home for bacteria would be dead matter.
3.) Some bacteria can physically move by itself.
4.) Bacteria has flourished on earth for over 3 billion years.
5.) The term "friendly bacteria" means that the bacteria is beneficial and helps a living thing, such as keeping plants fertile, helping us digest food and helping produce foods.
Beneficial Bacteria is bacteria that helps the
body by breaking down toxins.

Pathogenic Bacteria is bacteria that causes infections or harm to the body.

Bacteria can also be divided up into categories based on age.

The new and old bacteria could arguably be split up into two kingdoms due to how different the
new and old bacteria is.

Ancient bacteria is known as Archaebacteria, and modern bacteria is known as eubacteria.
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3.) "Bacterial Cell Interactive Animation." Cells Alive!. Quill Graphics, n.d. Web. 2 Jan 2014

4.) Bailey, Regina. "About.Biology." Bacterial Reproduction. 2014. Web 5 Jan 2014.

5.) "Classification of domains and phyla - Hierarchical classification of prokaryotes (bacteria)." bacterio.net. LPSN, n.d. Web. 16 Dec 2013. <http://www.bacterio.net/-classifphyla.html>.

6.) "Gram Negative Bacteria." Microbiology 201. N.p.. Web. 7 Jan 2014. .

7.). "Lesson 5: Bacteria." Mountain Empire Community College. Mountain Empire Community College. Web. 6 Jan 2014.

8.) N/A, . "Monera." Dictionary.com. Encyclopedia Brittanica, n.d. Web. 6 Jan 2014.

9.) Xu, George, MD, Ph.D. "History of the Gram Stain and How it Works." Gram Stain. University of Pennsylvania Health System , 31 Oct 1997. Web. 8 Jan 2014.

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Bacteria grows by multiplying, rather than growing like animals and humans do.
Bacteria evolves and adapts to it's environment. The Bacteria's endospore is a part of the bacteria that can adapt to it's environment and can survive in extreme hot, cold and radioactive enviornments `
Bacteria eats by absorbing food through it's cell walls, since it doesn't have a mouth.
Some Bacteria is thought to have a sense of smell and may react to very strong scents.
Bacteria cant see as far as scientists currently know.
Bacteria can communicate with each other by sending out signals, but do not speak.
Bacteria use asexual reproduction to create more bacteria. The most common type of asexual reproduction for bacteria is a method called Binary Fission. Binary Fission is when a cell starts to grow double its original size, but while growing it also grows a cell membrane down the middle of the cell. once the Bacteria Cell is done growing its splits into two regularly sized cells. This creates two identical cells with the same DNA.

Creating cells that are completely the same can be troublesome for their survival because all of the bacterium can be dealt with with a single antidote. To make it harder to kill the bacterium , bacteria use 3 techniques to create genetic recombination between the bacteria cells Conjugation, transformation, and transduction.

Conjugation is when certain bacteria are able to connect a pilus to other bacterium The bacteria then transfers some DNA through the pilus into the other bacteria. By putting in new DNA in various amounts the bacteria can achieve genetic recombination.
Transformation is a technique that allows the bacteria to take some DNA from dead Bacteria cells in the environment. The Bacterium able to use transformation takes in the dead bacteria’s DNA using a DNA binding protein which filters the dead DNA and takes a fragment of it.Then the fragment is attached onto the host bacteria’s DNA. This alters the host bacterias DNA so it isn't the same as other bacteria.
Transduction uses viruses known as Bacteriophages to indirectly transfer DNA between bacteria cells. Ordinarily, Bacteriophages infect bacteria cells and use the bacteria cell's components to reproduce. The new Bacteriophages have part of the infected Bacteria cell's DNA in them which they inject into other Bacterium.
Bacteriophages connecting to a bacteria cell
Gram-Negative Cells
Gram-Negative bacteria cells are different from gram-positive cells in three major ways:

1.) Gram-negative bacterium have thinner cell walls while gram-positive have thicker cell walls.

2.) Gram-negative bacterium have an additional cell membrane on the outside of the cell wall while gram-positive bacterium do not. This membrane contains lipopolysaccharide, a very harmful toxin to any animal.

3.) Gram-negative bacterium also have an additional compartment called periplasmic space. In this compartment are enzymes and proteins that help digest and transport nutrients into the cell.
Why is it called gram-Positive?
Gram-positive bacterium were originally called so because when a Gram reaction test is preformed upon it, the high peptidoglycan content in the cell wall retains the crystal violet dye used in the test. This turns the cell a purple-brown and thus the cell tests positive. The Gram staining method was first invented by a Danish bacteriologist named Gram in 1882 and is always to first identification method preformed upon bacteria.
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