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Hildegard E. Peplau

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Elizabeth Thilges

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Hildegard E. Peplau

Hildegard Elizabeth Peplau

Nurse Theorist Presentation 2013
Elizabeth Thilges & Johanna Almeida
Clinical Application of the Interpersonal Theory
Definitions of Nursing Paradigm
Major Concepts and Assumptions
Factors/ Ideas/Sources that Influenced
Credentials & Background
Type of Theory
She defines "environment" as forces that exist outside the organism (person) and in the context of culture, from which customs, and beliefs are acquired.

Peplau’s Nursing Paradigm Definitions
Peplau’s Nursing Paradigm Definitions
Peplau’s Nursing Paradigm Definitions
Peplau’s Nursing Paradigm Definitions
Nursing: Nursing Roles
The word "health" is a symbol in Peplau's definition. It implies a bettering of one's self in personality and other on going human processes in terms of creative, constructive, productive, personal and community living.
Peplau defines "person" as "man." Man, she defines as an organism that lives in unstable equilibrium while trying to reduce the anxiety produced and felt by needs.
"Hildegard Peplau considers nursing to be a 'significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process.' She defines it as a 'human relationship between an individual who is sick, or in need of health services, and a nurse specially educated to recognize and to respond to the need for help.'" Also important in her definition of nursing are the
of the nurse.
Nursing Roles:

• Stranger
-Receives the client in the same way one meets a stranger in other life situations provides an accepting climate that builds trust.
• Teacher
- The person who imparts knowledge in reference to a need or interest
• Resource
- The one who provides specifically needed information that aids in the understanding of a problem or new situation
• Counselor
-helps to understand and integrate the meaning of current life circumstances ,provides guidance and encouragement to make changes
• Surrogate
-helps to clarify domains of dependence interdependence and independence and acts on clients behalf as an advocate.
• Leader
-helps client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way

• Born on September 1, 1909 in Reading, PA to immigrant parents of German descent.

• In her youth she was "curious about everything, curious to know how things worked, curious about people and their motivations, curious about the world beyond Reading" (Barbara J. Callaway,Hildegard Peplau: Psychiatric Nurse of the Century, (New York: Springer Publishing Company,2002) 14)

• She decided on nursing as a career because it promised a monthly stipend and free room and board. She wanted more out of her life and nursing was one of the few careers that was offered to women.
Years in Nursing & Dates of Early Work
Interpersonal Relations in Nursing
in 1952
Began Nursing Career in 1931
Middle-Range Theory
Specific to nurse-patient relationship
Influenced by Harry Stack Sullivan's Theory of Interpersonal Relations (1953).
Also influenced by Percival Symond's Theory of Intelligence, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Neal Elger Miller's Theory of Learning.
Interpersonal Relations Theory
Served in the Army Nursing Corps from 1943-1945
Developed & taught first classes for graduate psychiatric nursing students at Teacher's College.
President of American Nurses Association from 1970-1972
Focuses on interpersonal relations between the nurse, the patient, and the patient's family and developing the nurse-patient relationship

Useful in establishing effective nurse-patient communication when obtaining a nursing history, providing patient education, or counseling patients and their families
Fundamentals of Nursing

Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing By: Ruth Elder, Katie Evans, Debra Nizette





The phases provide simplicity regarding the natural progression of the nurse-patient relationship.

This simplicity leads to adaptability in any nurse-patient interaction.
Health promotion and maintenance are less emphasized.

The theory cannot be used on patients who are withdrawn
• Graduated from Hospital School of Nursing in Pottstown, PA in 1931
• BA in interpersonal psychology - Bennington College, 1943
• MA in psychiatric nursing from Columbia University New York, 1947
•EdD in curriculum development, 1953
•Professor Emeritus from Rutgers University

•The theory explains the purpose of nursing is to help others identify their felt difficulties
• Nurses should apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience
• Peplau's theory explains the phases of interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations and methods for studying nursing as an interpersonal process
•Nursing is therapeutic in that it is a healing art, assisting an individual who is sick or in need of health care
•Nursing is an interpersonal process because it involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal
• The attainment of a goal is achieved through the use of a series of steps following a series of patterns
• The nurse and patient work together so both become mature and knowledgeable in the process. (nurse-patient relationship with four phases)
The individual has a felt need and seeks professional assistance.
The nurse helps the individual to recognize and understand their problem and determine the need for help.
The patient identifies with those who can help
The nurse permits exploration of feelings to aid in reorientation of feelings, strengthen positive forces in the personality, and provide needed satisfaction.
The patient attempts to derive full value from what they are offered through the nurse-patient relationship.
The nurse can project new goals to be achieved through personal effort and power shifts from the nurse to the patient as the patient delays gratification to achieve the newly formed goals.
The patient gradually puts aside old goals and adopts new goals. This is a process in which the patient frees himself from identification with the nurse.
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