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International Space Station PowerPoint

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Ralph Whitfield

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of International Space Station PowerPoint

The International Space Station
By: Ralph Whitfield

What is the ISS?
The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable, artificial satellite in low earth orbit.
It is a modular structure whose first component was launched into orbit in 1998.
The ISS can often be seen buzzing across the night sky with the naked eye at the appropriate times.
Each orbit around the earth takes around 92 minutes.
The ISS was a joint program split among five space agencies.
Roskosmos (Russia)
JAXA (Japan)
ESA (Europe)
CSA (Canada)
The estimated cost for the ISS is an estimated 150 billion US dollars.
The ISS is arguably the most expensive single item ever constructed.
NASA's budget for the space station from 1985 to 2015 is $58.7 billion. Russia has a budget of $12 billion, Europe and Japan both $5 billion and $2 billion for Canada. Then an additional $50.4 billion for the 36 shuttle flights used to construct the ISS.
The International Space Station

The ISS is being used as a testing ground to further research in many different fields, these include:
Human research in space medicine and biology
physical sciences
material sciences
A common misconception is that in space, such as in orbit around earth, you experience no gravity. In reality, you are experiencing just a little less gravity than you would on the surface of Earth.
The reason you experience the apparent weightlessness is because objects in orbit are in a state of freefall, falling around the curvature of earth allowing them to continue their state of orbit.
This picture to the right is a comparison of fire on earth and fire experiencing the microgravity from being in orbit.
Station Structure
Astronauts in orbit around Earth experience around 5 times more radiation than an airline pilot.
This radiation has been linked to an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts.
Many astronauts experience stress from being on board the space station.
Medical effects of long-term weightlessness include muscle atrophy, deterioration of the skeleton, fluid redistribution, a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system.
To combat the muscle and bone loss astronauts exercise at least 2 hours per day, strapping themselves to the treadmills with bungee cords.
Threat of Orbital Debris
At the low altitude the ISS is at, there is a wide variety of space debris.
This includes spent rocket stages, defunct satellites, explosion fragments, paint flakes, and other smaller debris, along with natural micrometeorites.
Despite having small size, these smaller objects moving at high speeds have a large amount of kinetic energy and can do much damage.
Future of the Space Station
Currently, the US does not have a way to get to the ISS, so they must pay the Russians for seats on their Soyuz-class rockets.
The ISS is to be continued until around 2025, although with the recent events of Crimea and the Russia Sanctions, the Russians want to end the life of the space station by 2020.
To the right is a picture of what an
object weighing 7 grams moving at
7km/s (orbital velocity of the ISS)
did to a solid block of aluminum.
Full transcript