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Transcript of Capetian Dynasty
Called "House of Capet", "The House of France", or "Les Capétiens"- ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The history of medieval France starts with Hugh Capet (940-996) rising to throne through election. (987)
The House of Valois, a cadet branch, succeeded the kingdom after the death of Chalres IV, which led to a Hundred Years' War.
It is said that the Franks came over from what is modern Germany, and then they settled in Northern France. The Capetians were Frankish kings, descendants of the Charlemagne (Charles the Great).
After Louis V died childless, ending the Carolingian Dynasty, nobles elected "Hugh Capet" as the next king- which started the Capetian Dynasty that ruled France for more than 800 years.
The name "Capetian" seems to be derived from the founder, "Hugh Capet". The meaning of the name "Capet" is unknown.
There are other assumptions- one of which explains that it is derived from the Latin word "caput" (head), which represents "chief" or "head" in this context.
Hugh the Great
, Duke of France, "Hugh" was born in 941.
His paternal family was the
, and grandmother was a
He was born into powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.
From 977 to 986, Hugh allied himself with Holy Roman Emperors to indirectly usurp the power of the Carolingian king; by 986 he was already a king, just without the title. The title of "Duke of Franks" served him till he was coronated.
One of the two most powerful continental European royal families.
(dominated European politics. for nearly five centuries)
Preceeded by the Robertians.
As in ruling France, succeeded the Carolingian dynasty.
What is Capetian Dynasty?
Descendents of Capetian
Not only did Capetian heirs retain the throne in France for centuries, descendents of the "House of Capet" dispersed throughout the world and took ruling position in varying ranks.
A line of dukes of Brittany, three emperors of Constantinople, counts of Artois, kings and queens of Naples, kings of Hungary- many sovereign royal authorities descended in the male line from the Capetian kings of France.
Influence on World (Modern)
Currently two Capetian monarchs rule in Spain and Luxembourg, and dozens of branches of the Capetian Dynasty still exists throughout Europe. The "Capets" are considered to be one of the most powerful historical families in the 21st century.
The hundred years' war, which was indirectly influenced/caused by the Capetian Dynasty and French throne, was a time that brought rapid military, political, and technological evolution.
Influence on France
Capet's rule was limited to a small domain around Paris, and the rest of the French kingdom was ruled by the powerful local lords. The successors of House Capet gradually increased their territory- through conquests and the recruitment of nobles.
Over the following centuries, Capetians spread throughout Europe, ruling various form of provincial units from kingdoms to manors.
The end of the Capetian Dynasty
King Charles IV of France died without a male heir in 1328; Isabella of France, sister of Charles IV, claimed the throne for her son, Edward III of England. However, French nobles didn't support the English king and made Philip of Valois their king.
After the death of Charles IV, the crown passed from "House of Capet" to the "House of Valois", which is a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
A law established from an ancient Frankish tradition- caused the French monarchy to permit only MALE descendents from the male line to inherit the throne, which means it excludes female descendents or male descendents from the female line.
Due to this, after the death of John I, the crown wasn't passed to his half-sister, Joan (later Joan II of the Navarre).
When Edward III of England was rejected, the Salic Law served as an excuse.
The law was once abolished, but reestablished during the Hundred Years' War.
Hundred Years' War
As the ruler of Normandy and other lands on the continent, the English king owed feudal homage to the king of France. In 1337,
Edward III of England
refused to pay homage to
Philip VI of France
, which lead the French king to claim confiscation of Edward's land.
Edward declared that he, not Philip, is the rightful king of France, a claim dating to 1328, when Charles IV of France (Edward's uncle) died without a male heir.
The war started soon afterward, and a series of conflicts continued for 116 years. (1337-1453) The war is commonly divided into three phases, the first of which, is the
Edwardian Era War
Edward III of England