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Sichuan Earthquake 2008

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Matika Vichitpannakul

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of Sichuan Earthquake 2008

An earthquake
had
struck
into the mountains of
Sichuan
Province in western China. Formed by two continental plates, the
Indian plate and the Eurasian plate
(involving the continents of Europe and Asia) on the
12th of May 2008
at 14:28 local time.
Earth's Layer
The earth’s surface is a thin rock layer; this is known as
the crust,
below this is a plastic liquid layer called the
upper mantle
. The crust is broken up into
minor and major plates
that are continuously deforming. The crust can be categories into 2 types,
continental and oceanic plates
. The
Sichuan earthquake
had occurred from a
convergent boundary between two continental plates.
Sichuan Earthquake's Stimulus
The ranges of
food selected
for stimulus will be
two wholemeal slices of bread
and the breads slightly burnt to create a dark, stiff continental plate characteristic to the food piece. The
asthenosphere
will represented with
coloured jelly
(red, blue, etc.) smooched up in a mixture with the small pieces of
Oreos
. This is to create a realistic texture of the asthenosphere layer.
Stimulus
Diagram
The Indian plate collides into the Eurasian plate forming a mountain range. As this continues to a occur the city near the driving motion of the two plates moves. The Sichuan Earthquake occurred when the movement of the two plates colliding had made Tibet, China moved which has overlapped Sichuan, China and made a land movement.
Bibliography
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Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis 2010. 'THE EARTHQUAKE OF MAY 12, 2008 IN THE SICHUAN PROVINCE OF CHINA George Pararas-Carayannis', viewed 01/09/2014, < http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Earthquake2008ChinaSichuan.html >
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Familyhealth Network 2014, 'Calories in Aeroplane, Jelly: Jelly, Original, Average All Flavours, prep. as directed'. viewed 31/08/2014, < http://www.calorieking.com.au/foods/calories-in-jelly-jelly-original-average-all-flavours-prep-as-directed_f-Y2lkPTUwODc4JmJpZD0xMSZmaWQ9NzE4MDkmcGFyPQ.html >
Hays J. 2011, 'SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE IN 2008: GEOLOGY, DAMAGE. AND POSSIBLE CAUSES', viewed 01/09/2014, < http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat10/sub65/item407.html >
Hinchingbrooke 2014, 'The Earth's crust is unstable, especially at plate margins,’ viewed 29/08/2014, < http://www.hinchingbrookeschool.co.uk/geography/GCSERestlessEarth1.html >
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Matika Vichitpannakul M4
Sichuan Earthquake 2008
Sichuan, China Earthquake 2008
Continental Plates
Continental plates
mainly consist of granite, schist, gneiss and other plutonic rocks. Although, the plate is mostly composed with granite with an average
age of 3 billion years
. Granite is igneous rock . On an average scale continental plates variety a thickness from
30 to 50 kilometers
weighing only 0.374% of the Earth’s mass. The plates have
density of 2.6-2.7gm/cm3
(C.R. Nave 2014) creating the continental plate to be less dense but thicker than the oceanic plate.
Asthenosphere layer
The
asthenosphere layer
is known to be the
bottom of the upper mantle
containing plastic properties underlying the lithosphere layer. The asthenosphere average is around
600km thick
. The composition of the layer includes of peridotite, eclogite, olivine, spinel, garnet and pyroxene rocks. The density of layer is estimated to be
4.4 gm/cm3
(C.R. Nave 2014). The asthenosphere has a soft, weak characteristic composed with
molten rocks with solid particles between the liquid mantle
. From this it create the ability to form a horizontal movement developing a
convection of heat
from the Earth’s core upward (C.R. Nave 2014). Seismic waves are appeared to pass slower through this layer making the layer also known as the
low velocity zone
(Hotz R. and Schmidt K. 2014) of the mantle.
Wholemeal bread
has been selected to be a representation of the
continental plate,
as they both have similar characteristics. These characteristics include, the
tone colour of grey and natural
stiff pieces, (white, brown and black) that both the wholemeal bread and the continental plate have alike. As well as examining the
density
of average wheat bread, it is estimated to be around
0.58gm/cm3
(AVCalc LLC. 2014), which is less dense than the jelly, the selected food item that will be the under layer of the wholemeal bread. This is the same as the
continental plate’s density is less dense than the upper mantle’s
. These characteristics have made the wholemeal bread become a realistic representation of the continental plate for the stimulus.
The
jelly and Oreos
has been chosen to be the stimulus representation of the
asthenosphere layer
from the similarities they share. Combining smooched jelly and Oreos will create different
scales of food pieces
similar to the asthenosphere
texture layer of the rocks
. The
jelly will represent the mantle’s plastic property
and the
Oreo’s will symbolise the hard, dark rocks
which will be floating throughout the plastic like layer, the jelly. In addition, with the information found of the jelly’s density combined with the Oreo’s density is
far denser than the wholemeal bread
, as only the
jelly’s density
is already
1.88gm/cm3
. The colours of the jelly and Oreo flavour has been chosen from the
colour of the rocks
within the asthenosphere, this colours include, clear red, green and blue, stiff black and brown.
Stimulus Evaluation
Epicenter
The disaster had struck a
7.9 magnitude
earthquake into Sichuan for close to
2 minutes
in the city’s province. The
epicentre
of the earthquake had been found to be in the city of
Wenchuan
, impacting 80% of the city’s structure (Parry 2013). Sichuan earthquake had extended to affect the area,
936 km by 596 km
of the
intensity maximum XI
. This identifies only a few structures have remained standing, bridges destroyed as well as rails bended significantly.
Tectonic Plate
The
Indian plate
has been
colliding
into the
Eurasian plate
for the past 50 million years, forming a boundary known as a
convergent boundary
. The convergent boundary had cause a variety of disasters, including, the Sichuan earthquake 2008. The roles of the plates are the main source of the deformation of the construction.
India (Indian plate)
has been moving
north
at a rate of
4cm per year
, slightly under the
central of Asia (The Eurasian plate).
Although it is not deep enough to be a subduction zone, from the equality of the density, causing the plates to
form mountain ranges.
From this movement the city,
Tibet
has naturally moved
eastward
, to allow India’s movement to proceed smoothly. Although from this motion Tibet has
over lapping the Sichuan
lower land region, which has been the
issue of the Sichuan earthquake.
The movement has developed a sudden motion.
The star indicating the epicenter
Damage
Properties, infrastructures
and
natural resources
had been
destroyed,
estimated
$86 billion
worth of damage has been caused from the Sichuan earthquake. Over
$140 billion
has been
spent on the damage
between the years 2008-11, to the total loss of the cities including
Sichuan (91.3%)
,
Gansu (5.8%)
and
Shaanxi (2.9%)
(Veraeck A. and Daniell J. 2011).
Hundreds of dams
were found
destroyed
causing
34 lakes to be formed
due to the debris blocking. This had led
homes flooding
downstream. Almost
2.5 million households
were needed to be
rebuilt
and housing.
Including a significant amount of
agriculture destroyed
throughout the cities. As well as
7,000 school buildings
in Sichuan had
collapsed
, causing students a heavy victim group in the disaster. The Sichuan earthquake has created a memorable despairing event, leading to
economic loss
,
failure
and
abortion
to all the citizens.
Death
Millions of residents
had been
affected
from the major earthquake of Sichuan. Over
87,000 people
had
died
along with
10,000 – 20,000

children
from schools being
killed.
This is

from unsafe constructions collapsing the exit for children (Suddath 2011). It is estimated
25% of the deaths
had been from the
after-effects
of the disaster; this includes the landslides, floods and other natural effects.
Natural Damage
Structure Damage
Injuries
Furthermore,
19,000 people
had gone
missing
and
374,643 people
had been found
injured,
with an outplaced number of injuries found in the city of
Haiti
(Veraeck A. and Daniell J. 2011). Overall the earthquake had
destroyed
not only the city but
individuals
causing families and friends to collapse down with the millions of buildings.
Evacuation
Whole
villages
and suburbs had
evacuated
from the possible
flooding
of the downstream houses, leaving
10 million
citizens left
homeless
.
(Hinchingbrooke 2014) - http://www.hinchingbrookeschool.co.uk/geography/GCSERestlessEarth1.html
(C.R. Nave 2014)- http://www.atmos.washington.edu/1998Q4/211/project2/group7.htm
(C.R. Nave 2014)- http://www.atmos.washington.edu/1998Q4/211/project2/group7.htm
(Maps of China.net 2014)
(American Geophysical Union 2014)-http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2008/05/16/updated-16th-may-twice-sichuan-earthquake-landslide-images/
(Hays 2013)-http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat10/sub65/item407.html
(Lee 2014)-http://phys.org/news/2013-04-china-relief-sichuan-quake.html
( Ambrose 2011)-http://www.geoffmackley.com/archive/jap11quake36.html
(Le Xiaoxuan 2014)- http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/13/content_8160718.htm
(Le Xiaoxuan 2014)-http://phys.org/news/2013-04-china-relief-sichuan-quake.html
(Flair 2014)-http://webecoist.momtastic.com/2008/10/01/most-devastating-deadly-natural-land-disasters/
(Xinhua 2008)- http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/13/content_8160718.htm
(World Vision Australia 2014)-http://www.worldvision.com.au/Issues/Emergencies/PastEmergencies/China_Earthquake.aspx/
(American Geophysical Union 2014)-http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2008/05/16/updated-16th-may-twice-sichuan-earthquake-landslide-images/
(California Institute of Technology 2008)- http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/outreach/highlights/2008MayChinaEQ/
http://www.maps-of-china.net/wenchuan-earthquake-map/
1) The similarity of the stimulus and the real layers includes, the plastic, clear texture of the upper mantle represented by the jelly. The peridotite and the pyroxene rocks represented by the Oreo's from the similarity of the texture and tone colour, black and brown. The eclogite, olivine, spinel and garnet also represented by the red and green jelly cause of the similarity of colour and texture. The burnt wholemeal bread represented the similarities of the tone colour of granite, schist, gneiss and other plutonic rocks. The overall stimulus layer also showed a similarity of the density differences between the wholemeal bread (Continental plate) and the jelly and Oreo (upper manlte).
Stimulus Evaluation
2) The model accurately demonstrated the reality from the correct tone colour, density and texture of the layers. As well as the movement of the plate colliding into one another and the location of the plate.
Stimulus Evaluation
3) The failure of the accuracy in the model was the continental plate. The plate had not been able deform into one combined plate and collided up to form the mountain. Instead, there was still a clear display of two plate's stiffing moving up into a mountain causing the inaccuracy of the stimulus.
Stimulus Evaluation
4) An improve to this stimulus is to find a new food material for the continental plate. The food piece must be able to collide into one to form a mountain but must still have a less density than the upper mantle stimulus (<1.88gm/cm3).
The Sichuan Earthquake 2008 (apology to the bad quality)
Full transcript