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Transcript of GE 1308
Using solar energy is safe. It is safer than electricity or burning fuels. Low risk of dangerous hazards Increased demand for solar energy also creates new production markets for the equipment in more homes and facilities new avenues of solar need are creating a buying power for additional solar-related manufacturing. Oil Dependence Some countries like the United States highly depends on fossil fuels Mainly import form foreign countries If the US adopted policies and implemented more solar energy related programs, the dependence for foreign oil would be diminished. Generating energy from solar window
does not create air pollution much cleaner source of energy than the
burning of fossil fuels A cleaner quality of air in the region, which in turn can make the citizens and workers in the area more healthier Sustainability As it is renewable, it won’t run out.
Our society can run sustainable. Education Our next generation will learn to be eco-friendly
, if we treat our environment friendly by using a clean energy. They can enjoy fresh air! Conveniency The solar window charger costs 49.90 € (about $500). If solar window are widely used, we may charge our self-devices anywhere. (i) Description: (ii) Scientific theory behind the technology (iv) Limitations Rainy day and cloudy day : not applicable Hong Kong Energy consumed in 2009:
283540TJ per year
=2.8x10^17 J per year CO2 emissions in Hong Kong CO2emissions :
5.5tonnes CO2 / person
Hong Kong Mid-year population in 2009:
Total amount of CO2 emissions:
~40 million tonnes Electricity Supplied by Using Coal Year 2009:
Coal supplies 54% electricity in HK
Energy Coal generated in 2009:
=1.531116 x10^17 J per year
~1.5 x 10^17 J Mass of Bituminous
Coal used in 2009 The efficiency of coal electricity power plant:
Heating Value of Bituminous Coal: 24.2kJ/g
The annual mass of Bituminous Coal used:
1.531116 x10^17 J per year÷(24.2KJ/g x10^3)÷40%
=1.581731405 x10^13g per year
~1.6 x 10^13 g Mass of Uncontrolled Mass
of Pollutants By Burning
Bituminous Coals Particles Emission Factor : 31kg/Mg Bituminous Coal
SO2 Emission Factor : 35 kg/Mg Bituminous Coal
The annual mass of pollutants:
(31+35) kg/Mg x 1.581731405 x10^7Mg
~10^12 g The 70 highest buildings in HK Total Height of The 70 tallest buildings in Hong Kong:
16452.5m ~Height: 415.8m
~Amount of windows: 11000
~The surface area of each window: 6m2
We can find that 70 tallest buildings is equal
to 40 IFC buildings in Hong Kong. Example:
Two International Finance Centre It means there are total 440000 windows in
these 40 IFC.
Total Surface Area:
440000windows x 6m^2/window
~2.6 million m^2 437 million square feet of windows were installed in non-residential buildings in the US.
- generate around 4 Gigawatts of power.
HK: If 2.6 million m^2 solar windows.
- generate 2.6x10^8 watts of power.
- generates 8.2x10^15J electricity per year. Example: US Use Less:
8.2 x10^15 J per year÷(24.2KJ/g x10^3)÷40%
(31+35) kg/Mg x 8471.07438Mg
~5.6 x 10^8 g annual mass of pollutants (1)Disadvantages
(2)Advantages The Environment Impacts of Using Solar Window
Solar photovoltaic panels contain hazardous materials
The materials can be released when a panel is damaged
(Hazardous Waste: Oils and molten salts may create potential for spills) Disadvantages Urban air quality can be improved.
-Less SO2 and particles are emitted
Less Acid rain
-Use less Coal, less SO2 and NO2 are emitted
Climate can be improved
-Less CO2 is emitted, relieve the global warming problem.
>>>CO2 can trap heat and long half-life Advantages *Solve the Heat Island Effect Problem
Solar Window: Heat→Electricity
*Photochemical smog can be solved
Less NOx will be emitted
*Photochemical smog can cause health effect, it is harmful to human effect Unlike traditional opaque solar panels
Solar windows – transparent
– a type of polymer solar cell
Transparency depends on:
(1) photoactive layer
Efficiency building-integrated photovoltaic
Integrated PV chargers for portable electronics
Supplemental power system in vehicles (iii) Applications modification layer Photoactive layer Top electrode Transparency Photoactive layer: absorbs mainly infra-red, but no visible light
Top electrode – silver nanowire-based : also allow visible light to pass through
Lower indoor temperature TiO2 nanoparticle layer
Lower energy barrier in generating electricity Power conversion efficiency : 4-11% In 2007 China,
Within the context of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for New and Renewable Energy, an Implementation Plan on Promoting Solar Thermal Utilization in China was adopted
the installation of SWH systems is given priority for major hot water consumers, such as hospitals, schools, restaurants and swimming pools Example No promotion policy in HK
Using example over the world as reference
Possible promotion policy
Subsidies and Taxes
Education Promotion policy The largest Solar PV manufacturer in the world
China produced 45% of global solar PV in 2009
China is now the world’s largest market for solar hot water
nearly two-thirds of global capacity Example: China In 2009
The energy sector as a whole employed an estimated 1.5 million
600,000 were in the solar thermal industry
266,000 in biomass generation
55,000 in solar photovoltaics
22,200 in wind power Job create Force the company/ Property developer use an fixed effort to profit ratio for solar energy Law Suggest the largest consumer to consider the solar energy first
Building, shopping mall Priority selection Starts from secondary school
General education about science
More people understand the importance
Encourage more people and next generation to involve Education As the industry growth
More people involved
Benefit the society and economic Job create The state would make it compulsory for high tension power consumers like special economic zones (SEZ), industries, IT parks, telecom towers, colleges and residential schools and buildings with built up area of 20,000 square meter or more to purchase 6 % solar power from Jan 2014 Example: Tamil Nadu Solar Energy Policy 2012 Use of tax credits
business investments in equipment that uses solar energy to generate electricity, or in solar heating or cooling systems
Homeowners qualify for a residential tax credit up to a maximum of $2,000 Example: US An important subsidy is a 30% federal income tax credit for solar energy equipment offered during 2006 and 2007 Example: US Encouraged the solar industry’s growth in some locations
Encourage the growth of solar industry
Encourage the applications of solar product Subsidies and Taxes Solar cells that are currently available are largely made of silicon wafers, an expensive and brittle material that can limit their commercial usability. Are made of natural polymers which can be dissolved into liquid for easy application that does not require expensive and complicated high-temperature or high-vacuum production techniques common to other solar coatings Solar heat that passes through windows may account for up to 40% percent of the cooling needs for a home or business.
Solar window can lower summer cooling costs by up to 25 percent, in turn reducing the need for more CO2-producing power plants and a smaller overall carbon footprint.
Can produce 8% to 300% more power than traditional solar cell The estimated cost return is less than two and a half years in a sunny place like Los Angeles and less than a decade in a foggy place like San Francisco.
if one needed 20 new windows for their home these could be priced around $250 each. The total cost here would be $5,000. However, these windows would help reduce energy loss by 30-50% and therefore save money on electricity bills. Computer modeling of a 700-foot skyscraper in Texas suggests that covering it in solar windows would generate up to 5.3 megawatt-hours per day of electricity.
That's enough to power 165 homes, and it could provide a skyscraper with sufficient power for all its lighting. - many windows 2. cannot develop large scale renewable land in Hong Kong - not enough lands - high buildings - carbon-free - eco-friendly - do not require lands 3. remind competitive between solar cell, solar chimney and solar window