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Argument Against Inclusion in the Classroom
Transcript of Argument Against Inclusion in the Classroom
Erin Grodnitzky- Autistic Support Teacher, Elementary School
Kellie Coates- LEarning Support Teacher, Middle School
Lisa Harm- Emotional Support Teacher, High School Case Study Ninth grade student
Fully mainstreamed except when he receives group
counseling one time a week for 30 minutes
Fifteen years old
Future aspirations: “watch T.V. and sleep”
Has been suspended 3 times
Serves detention every week
Currently going to court for Truancy
George has had late arrivals every day until winter break
Pattern is beginning again George has had late arrivals every day until winter break
Pattern is beginning again Case Study- “George” and his Family Lives with his Mom, Grandmother, sister, and brother in the Grandmother’s house
Mother: Caucasian and currently unemployed
Father: African American and is currently in jail for selling narcotics
Siblings: suffering from most, if not all of the disabilities George is suffering from Case Study- “George Smith” Case Study: “George” and his Diagnosis Disabilities: O.D.D., ADHD, Bipolar disorder, and Conduct Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (O.D.D) is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination.
Bipolar Disorder involves periods of elevated or irritable mood (mania), alternating with periods of depression. The "mood swings" between mania and depression can be very abrupt.
Conduct Disorder is a disorder of childhood and adolescence that involves chronic behavior problems, such as: defiant, impulsive, or antisocial behavior; drug use; and/or criminal activity Case Study: “George’s view on school” “I hate school.”
overwhelmed by large
always getting into trouble
“too much” going on in his head to focus on school work
feels like he needs to act out so no one notices he doesn’t understand
How do you think George feels about inclusion? Case Study: “George’s teacher’s” defiant behaviors are extremely distracting to both teacher and students
even with accommodations/modifications he is struggling/failing
feels like other students label him= socially effects him
spends more time disciplining and/or trying to calm him down than teaching the rest of the class
makes the teacher feel helpless and that he is not doing his job
Examples of what goes on during class: sleeping, yelling, cursing, throwing objects, starting fights, and crying
How would you feel if you were George’s teacher and/or the rest of the class? Case Study: “George’s Mom” Concerned that he is not learning the coping skills he needs to succeed
Does not care about school work, she cares about his emotional health over anything
Worried as to what he is going to do in the future; maybe he should look into a technology school
Mentioned that he curses at her every morning when she wakes him up
Takes him one hour to get out of bed and one hour to get him to school
Sometimes she needs to ask the school guard to escort him into school
Has cried numerous times because she does not know what to do
How would you feel if you were George’s Mom?
Take a minute: Is inclusion the best thing for George? Explain! Mainstreaming Generally, mainstreaming has been used to refer to the selective placement of special education students in one or more "regular" education classes. Proponents of mainstreaming generally assume that a student must "earn" his or her opportunity to be placed in regular classes by demonstrating an ability to "keep up" with the work assigned by the regular classroom teacher. This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery. Inclusion Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students). Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery. Full Inclusion Full inclusion means that all students, regardless of handicapping condition or severity, will be in a regular classroom/program full time. All services must be taken to the child in that setting. We do not disagree with INCLUSION; we just feel that it is not for everyone. SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW TIMELINE and BUZZ WORDS 1975- (PL 94-142) The education for the Handicapped Act – Provides a free appropriate public education for all children with disabilities, ages 5-21
1990- Amendments (PL 101-476) IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act- “handicapped child” was changed to “child with a disability”, Assistive Technology put in IEP, transition services, Least Restrictive environment (LRE)
1997- Amendments (PL 105-17) LRE- assure that all students will have access to the general curriculum
LRE- Least Restrictive Environment
FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education
IEP- Individualized Education Plan Raise your hand if you have a student who has a disability in your classroom?
Raise your hand if you have participated in an IEP meeting?
Raise your hand if you have seen the IEP?
Raise your hand if you have a copy of the student goals at a glance?
Raise your hand if you know all of the student’s accommodations?
Raise your hand if you have time to do any of this? B. Type of Support: 1. Amount of special education supports
Itinerant: Special education supports and services provided by special education personnel for 20% or
less of the school day
•Supplemental: Special education supports and services provided by special education personnel for more
than 20% of the school day but less than 80% of the school day
•Full-Time: Special education supports and services provided by special education personnel for 80% or
more of the school day
2. Type of special education support:
•Blind-Visually Impaired Support
•Deaf and Hard of Hearing Support
•Life Skills Support
•Multiple Disabilities Support
•Speech & Language Support Concerns about Inclusion and/or Full Inclusion from the regular education standpoint. Classrooms do not have the resources, training and supports necessary to teach students with disabilities.
The disabled children are not getting appropriate, specialized attention and care.
General education student’s education is constantly disrupted.
General education student’s get less attention.
The range of student’s levels in classrooms makes it impossible for one teacher to adequately teach.
Too many adults in the classroom.
Stress of the regular education teacher.
Violent classroom environments. Concerns about Inclusion and/or Full Inclusion from the special education standpoint. Instruction is not appropriate
Loss of advocacy
Services and programs will be watered down
Less opportunities for children to develop basic life skills
Children could be ridiculed by other students
Difficult to implement intensive teaching strategies What is ... ? ABA- Applied Behavior Analysis (Based on Skinner’s theory) A method of teaching children with autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. It is based on the premise that appropriate behavior – including speech, academics and life skills – can be taught using scientific principles.
ABA assumes that children are more likely to repeat behaviors or responses that are rewarded (or "reinforced"), and they are less likely to continue behaviors that are not rewarded. Eventually, the reinforcement is reduced so that the child can learn without constant rewards.
Mands are requests ("I want a drink.")
Echoes are verbal imitations, ("Hi")
Tacts are labels ("toy," "elephant") and
Intraverbals are conversational responses. ("What do you want?")
A VB program will focus on getting a child to realize that language will get him what he wants, when he wants it. Requesting is often one of the first verbal skills taught; children are taught to use language to communicate, rather than just to label items. Learning how to make requests also should improve behavior. ABLLS- R - Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised ABLLS assesses skills in children with language and learning deficits and is most commonly used in the process of the development of a behavioral program for children in the autism spectrum. It provides both parents and professionals with criterion-referenced information regarding a child’s current skills, and provides a curriculum that can serve as a basis for the selection of educational objectives. “One additional concern is a suspicion that school administration motives for moving toward more inclusive approaches are often more of a budgetary (cost-saving) measure than out of a concern for what is really best for students. If students with disabilities can be served in regular classrooms, then the more expensive special education service costs due to additional personnel, equipment, materials, and classrooms, can be reduced. "But supporters [argue] that, while administrators may see inclusion as a means to save funds by lumping together all students in the same facilities, inclusion rarely costs less than segregated classes when the concept is implemented responsibly"
http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues43/concerns.html Video So Lets Be Honest......... Behaviors impulsive behaviors that disrupt the class
calling out, arguing with other students and/or adults, getting out of seat, do not listen to directions
students can’t stop these behaviors and need to be removed from class
easily reach frustration level
-students may shut down, cry, get mad, throw things
**These behaviors stem partially from Social Skill Deficits Social Skill Deficits - significant problems with interpersonal (acting out) peer relationships
Skill deficit- when a child who has never learned the required social or cognitive skill to use in a particular social situation
Performance Deficit- when a child has learned a social skill but fails to perform in the appropriate situation
Self Control Deficit- When a child’s lack of self-control results in negative behaviors, which interfere with both acquiring and performing appropriate social skills
***Prior to placing behaviorally disordered students in the regular education class, the students skills deficits need to be addressed and controlled before entering the regular education classroom. If this is not implemented after the student attaining training in social skills, mainstreaming may not succeed and the child is being set up for failure. Low Self –Esteem/Self Concept (Academic Failure) Students need to be in a placement where they can feel academic success
If they are unable to achieve success, they will continue to develop learned helplessness
Mainstreaming does not improve self-concept, however appropriate special placement and support services increase self-concept
feel overwhelmed with work
Over anxious Time spent in learning support to catch students up in their regular education classrooms
Time spent redirecting LD students in the regular education classroom
One on one with student
Time is taken away from the regular education students
More time must be spent on concepts when the class is ready to move on
Can't keep up with the pace set by the school district
Teachers need more time to plan and adapt their lessons to fit the students with learning disabilities Time not enough time to plan
not enough training through the district
Personality conflicts/ differences in educational philosophy
A need of flexibility Co-teaching Teacher is able to form strong bonds with their students
Safe place or comfort zone
Reading Levels- Students with learning disabilities who are 2 or more years below grade level in reading should be in a self contained classroom until their reading levels are commensurate with their intellectual potential and attribution better allow for students to be trained for functional job settings and academic skills.
Special educators have a strong desire to see their students succeed in a way that not all teachers in an inclusive setting have.
Better able to follow IEP’s
Able to implement Specially Designed Instruction such as: Test read * Directions read * Listening to a book or study guide on the computer * Re-teaching * Self contained classroom Parents Feel... mainstreaming their child is a more restrictive environment because their child constantly under a microscope where teachers and students pick on them
Reinforcing of negative stereotypes about students with learning disabilities
Children have succeeded in a self-contained classroom because in that classroom is less restricted where the student can feel more independent, and more confident within themselves.
The education of their child is weakened because there are too many students in the class and the option for re-teaching is no longer available to them
some anti-inclusion parents say their kids were isolated and miserable in mainstream classes. THE END Would you want your child to be in a regular education classroom if he or she weren't ready?
Would you want your child's education compromised because of another student or students? 2004- IDEIA - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act