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What is cytology and microscopy?
Transcript of What is cytology and microscopy?
Microscopy: investigation by use of microscopes (dictionary.com 2014)
Cytology: A branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells (dictionary.com 2014)
Information of 4 microscopes
definition: a microscope is a instrument used for inspecting small substances such as animal, mineral or plant samples (The Free Dictionary 2014)
Transmission Electron Microscope
An electron microscopes uses a beam of electrons to create a vivid image of the object being studied. Electron microscopes have a much higher magnification power than a normal light microscope. Electron microscopes can magnify up to 2 million times (Nobelprize.org 2014, Microbehunter.com. 2014)
The stereo microscope or also know as the dissecting microscope is a microscope, which enables the magnification and examination of three-dimensional substances, rather than samples prepared on glass slides. This microscope has a much better magnification than the light microscope and is capable of seeing objects in much finer detail. It can magnify up to a maximum of 100X (stereo microscope - Wikipedia 2014, Microbehunter.com. 2014)
Compound microscope (light microscope)
How it works: a compound microscope works by magnifying the ultraviolet light levels that the naked eye can't see. This microscope is popular among botanists for studying plant cells, in biology to view bacteria and parasites as well as a variety of human/animal cells. The compound microscope is the best to learn the basics with and are the most familiar microscopes. Today's strongest compound microscopes have magnifying powers up to 1000X (Microscopemaster.com 2014, Microbehunter.com. 2014)
The digital microscope uses the power of the computer via USB cable to view objects not visible to the naked eye. This microscope is helpful because the imagines seen on the microscope can be saved to the computers memory. Digital microscopes have a magnification of 10X-200X (microscope-shop.com 2014, Digital microscope -Wikipedia 2014)
Robert Hooke introduced the term 'cell'. He did this by describing the structure he seen when seeing a cork through a microscope. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
very minimal serious work was published about cells. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
Timeline of microscopy
Botanist Matthias Schleiden and zoologist Theodor Schwann developed the cell theory for both flora and fauna. ‘Plants and animals are composed of groups of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of living organisms.’ (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
Hooke published his findings in his book called Micrographia. The book was about his studies on various substances he viewed through his microscope. Among Hooke’s work was a explanation of a cork and its ability to float in water. (Nobel Media 2014)
Magnification greater than x5 became available in 1500. They were known as 'canvox lenses.' (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
The first compound microscope was used in Europe. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek made 500+ single lens microscopes. In doing this he discovered bacteria and blood cells, spermatozoa and protozoa. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
Using lenses to study insects Marcello Malpighi discovered capillaries. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
Two Dutch lens grinders by the names of Hans and Zacharias Janssen placed two lenses in a tube to make the first microscope (nobel media 2014).
The first two books on the microscopy structure of plants were published by Nehemlah Grew. (An introduction to Cell Theory Biozone International 2000)
In the year 1678 Cherubin d’Orleans out of two monocular systems developed a binocular microscope (biocrats 2010)
In 1690 Christiaan Huygens invents the wave theory of light and builds oculars (the eyepiece of an visual instrument) made of two lenses (thefreedictionary 2014, biocrats 2010)
A microscope base with an illumination system (to transmit light through a transparent object) is developed by John Marshall (biocrats 2010)
Christian Gottlieb Hertel uses mirrors for illumination and using horse hair for a grid, makes a micrometer eyepiece (biocrats 2010)
In 1833 Robert Brown, an English botanist, discovered the nucleus in plant cells (the cell theory timeline 2014).
The discovery that sperm and eggs are also cells was founded by Albert Von Kölliker (the cell theory timeline 2014).
The cell theory is modified by Carl Alexander Carl Heinrich Braun. He calls cells the basic unit of life (cell theory timeline 2014)
A German physiologist/physician/pathologist named Rudolf Virchow, added the 3rd part to the cell theory (cell theory timeline 2014)
Multiple technical advances enhance microscopes and make them easier to handle. This leads to microscopy becoming more popular among scientists (biocrats 2010)
Richard Zsigmondy creates the ultra-microscope. This allowed him to study objects below the wavelength of light (biocrats 2010)
Ernst Ruska co-invents the electron microscope for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 (biocrats 2010)
In 1981 a scanning tunneling microscope which gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level is invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer(biocrats 2010).