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Environment M1 presentations

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by

Erin Streff

on 7 June 2014

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Transcript of Environment M1 presentations

How does natural gas stack up against coal?
nonrenewable resource
composed mostly of methane
emits less nitrous oxides and carbon dioxide, but more methane
total footprint greater on a short-time horizon (20-year), comparable on a long-time horizon (100-year)
So is allowing fracking good
economic policy?
The value of water is not purely economic
Redefining the
hydro-social cycle
Economy Vs. Environment?
image sources: http://bffministries.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/life_giving_water.jpg; http://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/energy/section_3/topics/conserving_in_the_community/img/stool.gif
Environment M1 presentations
- Dan
Environmental Economics of Hydraulic Fracking at the Marcellus Shale
Shinn
How does human behavior and population growth in the United States affect its bird species?
Ailin
Effects of Sea Ice Extent on Polar Bear Behaviors
Hanan
The Spatial Distribution of Coal and Regional Economic Growth in China
Raw Coal Production and GDP
Shānxi
Inner Mongolia
Correlation Coefficient
r = 0.06
Outliers
No linear relationship
Major Mining Provinces: Inner Mongolia, Shānxi, Shănxi, Henan, Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Liaoning
r = -0.11
Still no linear relationship
Question: The coal production does not significantly influence the local economy. But what makes coal mining the most important mining industry in China?
Coal Consumption and GDP
r = 0.59
There is a strong (>0.5) but not very strong (>0.8) positive linear relationship.
Coal is the major energy source in China. The coal production does not influence the local economy, but coal used in other industries has a positive relationship with the local economic growth.
Coal Mines and Environment
Climate Change & Rising Sea Level
human carbon emissions increasing
the positive feedback loop & melting ice caps

Effects on the Polar Bears
polar bears have normal migrations on and off of ice habitat, but the amount they spend off it is increasing
hunting & breeding done on ice
during summer the bears move to land and fast
number of ice-free days increase by 50% (HB)

Polar Bear on IUCN's threatened list - "vulnerable"
reductions in bear populations
size, reproductive potential, general health decline in bears with more ice free days

Beaufort Sea versus Chukchi / Bering Sea region
Beaufort Sea bears suffer twice as many reduced ice days
Beaufort Sea (SB) bears have lower body weight
100 kg = 220 pounds
*correlation, not causation
224 out of 345 districts are affected
Adapting to a new habitat
1. Destruction of ecosystem
2. Underground water pollution
3. Particular Matter air pollution
Terrestrial Prey and Polar Bears
Guiyu, Guangdong, China
World's Largest E-waste Recycling Site
Implications of growing human population in the US:
Northern Harrier
Cooper's Hawk
American Kestrel
Red-tailed Hawk
Image Source: http://mindandmarket.blogspot.com/2010/04/us-public-debt-1970-2009.html
Polar Bear spatial distribution

dark green = normal range
light green = occasional range (over pack)
approximately 900,000 wild caribou
migrate north to coast for the summer
Chukchi
~380,000

Beaufort
~236,000
Ringed Seal (and subspecies) distribution
Angela
less sea ice bears spend more days on land longer fasting
main prey: ringed seal pups (high caloric & fat content to build fat cells)
bears shifting to terrestrial prey (geese, caribou)
hunts documented on film
bear scat comparisons (1970s - today)
Problems with prey shift:
energy-intensive pursuits; bears not adapted to hunt this way
nutritionally insufficient = at odds with caloric quantities
by Shelby
Terrestrial Predation of Polar Bears
California
Tiger Salamander
Natural Gas:
The bridge fuel toward a clean energy future?
- Economic development requires us to sacrifice our environment; we increase our population, leading to increased consumption, production and depletion of our resources.
- Human population size and growth rate directly impact how we treat our nature.

Larger human population = more GDP growth = higher living standard = more deforestation = more land transformation = larger footprint causing anthropogenic climate change = declines in bird populations.
Barred Tiger Salamander
image sources: http://grist.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/marcellus-drills.png?w=470&h=470 http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2012/04/ap_enterprise_doctors_say_penn.html; http://www.nofrackingway.us/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/fracked-water.jpg
http://www.motherjones.com/files/images/earthquake-map_2.jpg
Cons
water quality and quantity
air pollution
seismic activity
public health
Economic Impacts of Fracking
In just 10 years, the US human population is growing at a noticeable rate, especially in states such as California, Texas and Florida.

I made maps that point out several counties with large increases in population size and found data demonstrating the change in population size as well as the populations in certain age groups.

A population size of age under 18 that is denser than the population size of age above 65 shows that there has been more births than deaths in recent years.
Pros
job creation
cleaner energy?
Marcellus Shale Development
9% of Bird Species in the US are Endangered, Critically Endangered, or Vulnerable to Becoming Extinct. This includes 877 bird species in total.
Examples of bird species in the US facing declining populations as human population increases:

Northern Harrier (500,000)

Cooper's Hawk (600,000)

American Kestrel (1,700,000)

Red-tailed Hawk (1,500,000)
Increases Earthquakes
Health Risks
Drinking Water Contamination
Precipitation is becoming more unpredictable as a result of anthropogenic climate change.
These maps show the change in precipitation variability in 10 years.
Overall, there is an increase in precipitation. However, rainfall is more extreme in 2013 than ten years ago. There are locations that are extremely dry and places much wetter than normal.
Thanks for listening!
Bottom line: Natural gas is better than the worst, but not good enough.
The Flip-side of Recycling: Evidence of Health Effects of E-waste in Guiyu, China
image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Moss_Landing_natural_gas_plant.jpg
Average Life Expectancy at Birth (Guangdong)
Data Source: The National Bureau Of Statistics of the The Peoples Republic Of China
Evidence of Health Effects
Other e-waste Towns:
Agbogbloshie (Ghana)
Seelampur (India)
Image source: http://elawspotlight.wordpress.com/2010/10/14/point-of-view-elaws-intern-looks-at-chinas-e-waste-industry/
Guo Y. et al.: Lead Content in Placentas (2010)
Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969710003967
Qu W. et al.: PBDE (Flame Retardant) in Blood (2007)
Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412007001043
Caribou herd distribution
The California Tiger Salamander and the Threats it Faces from its Texan Cousin, the Barred Tiger Salamander
The Problem
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