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Environment M1 presentations
Transcript of Environment M1 presentations
composed mostly of methane
emits less nitrous oxides and carbon dioxide, but more methane
total footprint greater on a short-time horizon (20-year), comparable on a long-time horizon (100-year)
So is allowing fracking good
The value of water is not purely economic
Economy Vs. Environment?
image sources: http://bffministries.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/life_giving_water.jpg; http://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/energy/section_3/topics/conserving_in_the_community/img/stool.gif
Environment M1 presentations
Environmental Economics of Hydraulic Fracking at the Marcellus Shale
How does human behavior and population growth in the United States affect its bird species？
Effects of Sea Ice Extent on Polar Bear Behaviors
The Spatial Distribution of Coal and Regional Economic Growth in China
Raw Coal Production and GDP
r = 0.06
No linear relationship
Major Mining Provinces: Inner Mongolia, Shānxi, Shănxi, Henan, Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Liaoning
r = -0.11
Still no linear relationship
Question: The coal production does not significantly influence the local economy. But what makes coal mining the most important mining industry in China?
Coal Consumption and GDP
r = 0.59
There is a strong (>0.5) but not very strong (>0.8) positive linear relationship.
Coal is the major energy source in China. The coal production does not influence the local economy, but coal used in other industries has a positive relationship with the local economic growth.
Coal Mines and Environment
Climate Change & Rising Sea Level
human carbon emissions increasing
the positive feedback loop & melting ice caps
Effects on the Polar Bears
polar bears have normal migrations on and off of ice habitat, but the amount they spend off it is increasing
hunting & breeding done on ice
during summer the bears move to land and fast
number of ice-free days increase by 50% (HB)
Polar Bear on IUCN's threatened list - "vulnerable"
reductions in bear populations
size, reproductive potential, general health decline in bears with more ice free days
Beaufort Sea versus Chukchi / Bering Sea region
Beaufort Sea bears suffer twice as many reduced ice days
Beaufort Sea (SB) bears have lower body weight
100 kg = 220 pounds
*correlation, not causation
224 out of 345 districts are affected
Adapting to a new habitat
1. Destruction of ecosystem
2. Underground water pollution
3. Particular Matter air pollution
Terrestrial Prey and Polar Bears
Guiyu, Guangdong, China
World's Largest E-waste Recycling Site
Implications of growing human population in the US:
Image Source: http://mindandmarket.blogspot.com/2010/04/us-public-debt-1970-2009.html
Polar Bear spatial distribution
dark green = normal range
light green = occasional range (over pack)
approximately 900,000 wild caribou
migrate north to coast for the summer
Ringed Seal (and subspecies) distribution
less sea ice bears spend more days on land longer fasting
main prey: ringed seal pups (high caloric & fat content to build fat cells)
bears shifting to terrestrial prey (geese, caribou)
hunts documented on film
bear scat comparisons (1970s - today)
Problems with prey shift:
energy-intensive pursuits; bears not adapted to hunt this way
nutritionally insufficient = at odds with caloric quantities
Terrestrial Predation of Polar Bears
The bridge fuel toward a clean energy future?
- Economic development requires us to sacrifice our environment; we increase our population, leading to increased consumption, production and depletion of our resources.
- Human population size and growth rate directly impact how we treat our nature.
Larger human population = more GDP growth = higher living standard = more deforestation = more land transformation = larger footprint causing anthropogenic climate change = declines in bird populations.
Barred Tiger Salamander
image sources: http://grist.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/marcellus-drills.png?w=470&h=470 http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2012/04/ap_enterprise_doctors_say_penn.html; http://www.nofrackingway.us/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/fracked-water.jpg
water quality and quantity
Economic Impacts of Fracking
In just 10 years, the US human population is growing at a noticeable rate, especially in states such as California, Texas and Florida.
I made maps that point out several counties with large increases in population size and found data demonstrating the change in population size as well as the populations in certain age groups.
A population size of age under 18 that is denser than the population size of age above 65 shows that there has been more births than deaths in recent years.
Marcellus Shale Development
9% of Bird Species in the US are Endangered, Critically Endangered, or Vulnerable to Becoming Extinct. This includes 877 bird species in total.
Examples of bird species in the US facing declining populations as human population increases:
Northern Harrier (500,000)
Cooper's Hawk (600,000)
American Kestrel (1,700,000)
Red-tailed Hawk (1,500,000)
Drinking Water Contamination
Precipitation is becoming more unpredictable as a result of anthropogenic climate change.
These maps show the change in precipitation variability in 10 years.
Overall, there is an increase in precipitation. However, rainfall is more extreme in 2013 than ten years ago. There are locations that are extremely dry and places much wetter than normal.
Thanks for listening!
Bottom line: Natural gas is better than the worst, but not good enough.
The Flip-side of Recycling: Evidence of Health Effects of E-waste in Guiyu, China
image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Moss_Landing_natural_gas_plant.jpg
Average Life Expectancy at Birth (Guangdong)
Data Source: The National Bureau Of Statistics of the The Peoples Republic Of China
Evidence of Health Effects
Other e-waste Towns:
Image source: http://elawspotlight.wordpress.com/2010/10/14/point-of-view-elaws-intern-looks-at-chinas-e-waste-industry/
Guo Y. et al.: Lead Content in Placentas (2010)
Qu W. et al.: PBDE (Flame Retardant) in Blood (2007)
Caribou herd distribution
The California Tiger Salamander and the Threats it Faces from its Texan Cousin, the Barred Tiger Salamander