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Transcript of EDGR 601
Next Steps Plan
June 13, 2015
"Response to Intervention"
Research Project Focus Questions
: What factors are affecting the disabilities among the different genders in relation to special education?
Literature Review Question
: What specific Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies in K-3 would make students more successful and less likely to be identified with learning disabilities?
Next Step Question:
What specific RtI strategies of Tier One should be implemented in pre-school through third grade to make more students more successful and less likely to be identified with learning disabilities?
According to Yi-Juin Liu (2010), many students have already experienced academic failure by the time they are assessed.
Literature Review Overview
Common Theme - Early Intervention is key for educational success
Early intervention is recognized as being one of the main preventions of children failing academically or being identified as having a learning disability.
RtI is a framework that addresses the learning and behavioral needs of all students beginning in elementary and continues until graduation from high school (Pierce & Bruns, 2013).
Pierce and Bruns (2013) propose that Response to Intervention is a continuum of strategies and interventions that are developed to meet the educational needs of students in K-12.
Pierce and Bruns (2013) believe that it is important to identify which components are needed to implement for individual students.
The researchers imply that students will continue to struggle or develop learning disabilities or behavioral problems if their individual learning issues are not addressed.
Big Idea 1
Stages of Response to Intervention
Response to Intervention is a multi-leveled intervention program.
Tier One is the first stage of RtI. Tier One’s purpose is to identify students that are struggling academically.
Tier Two, second stage, is for students that need even more additional support.
Tier Three, the third stage, is implementation on intensive intervention before special education services are needed
The three tiers of Response to Intervention, have been created to prevent academic failure of most struggling students.
Response to Intervention: A Practical Guide for Every Teacher
, explains the three-tiered model in detail for the classroom teacher (Bender & Shore, 2007).
Big Idea 2
Application of Response to Intervention
Bayat, Mindes, and Covitt (2010) suggested that providing students with non-special education inventions in the early years may help students that are struggling academically.
McMaster, Kung, Han, and Cao (2008) used their study to indicate the effectiveness of Kindergarten Peer Assisted Learning (K-PALS) groups with various English Language Learners (ELLs).
The idea of RtI implemented in preschool comes from a belief that disabilities come from delays that were not addressed when a child should be proficient with particular skills (Bayat et al., 2010).
Greenwood et al. (2011) suggests that intervening as soon as a student displays a discrepancy in academic skills is essential. Their article implies that implementing strategies prior to kindergarten is proving that RtI programs provide evidence of positive results.
Big Idea 3
RtI is showing promise in the areas of behavior modification and reading.
Bayat et al. (2010) used a case study to imply that using early behavior interventions can help students improve their inappropriate behaviors that cause academic failures.
According to Greenwood et al. (2011), the benefit of RtI is to provide the experiences needed for students that lack essential skills in language, literacy, and behavioral disorders.
Next Steps for Proposal
Refine my question with next professor
Refine Big Ideas
Further research concerning Tier 1 of RtI
Interview local preschool and kindergarten teachers
Concentrate on school site
Choose research method
Explore Mixed Methods Approach (Shank, Brown, & Pringle, 2014)
Choose data collection method
McMillan (2012) implies that conclusions can be made as it pertains to the data once research has been gathered, coded, and summarized.
What articles address Tier One Strategies?
Is there other intervention research that has been done with preschoolers that I can compare my data with?
Who are the key researchers in Response to Intervention?
What strategies would be the best to implement with preschoolers?
Can these strategies be adapted in their home environment?
What elementary schools in the local community will the best ones to interview and consult?
Ideas to Pursue
Tier One versus Tier Two Strategies for Preschool
Concept of Engaging Support Providers (Speech & Language, Counseling, Occupational Therapy, etc.)
Explore different preschool program concepts for best implementation
I will continue to search Concordia's Online Library for other research pertaining to early implementation of RtI using key words and phrases.
I will compare the literature for reliability, credibility, and validity.
I will consult other educators concerning my findings for their expert advice.
I will determine what research applies to my research project proposal.
I will apply my learned knowledge to my research project proposal in EDGR 698.
Therefore, I will continue to use the skills I learned in EDGR 601 to refine my research question. Using the learned research skills, I will continue to conduct research as I am refining my question for my action research proposal. I will continue to seek out expert advice from my professor, the librarian, other educators, and parents of struggling preschool/kindergarten students concerning the use of Response to Intervention. In the end, I will write the proposal from credible, valid, and trustworthy services.
Arms, E., Bickett, J., & Graf, V. (2008, July). Gender bias and imbalance: Girls in
the US special education programmes.
Gender and Education
, 20(4), 349-359.
Bayat, M., Mindes, G., & Covitt, S. (2010). What does RTI (Response to
Intervention) look like in preschool?,
Early Childhood Education Journal
Bender, W. N., & Shores, C. (2007).
Response to intervention: A practical guide for
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Greenwood, C. R., Bradfield, T., Kaminski, R., Linas, M., Carta, J. J., & Nylander, D.
(2011). The response to intervention (RtI) approach in early childhood.
on Exceptional Children, 43
Images Courtesy of Google Images
Liu, Y. (2010). Current issues and trends in special education: Identification,
assessment, and instruction,
Advances in Special Education, 19
Page 1 of 2
McMaster, K. L., Kung, S., Han, I., & Cao, M. (2008). Peer-assisted learning
strategies: A “Tier 1” approach to promoting English learners’ response to
Exceptional Children, 74
McMillan, J. H. (2012).
Educational research: Fundamentals for the consumer
(6th ed.). [Vital Source]. Retrieved from
Pierce, C., & Bruns, D. (2013). Aligning components of recognition and response
and response to intervention to improve transition to primary school.
Childhood Education Journal, 41
(5), 347-354. doi:10.1007/
Shank, G., Brown, L., & Pringle, J. (2014).
Understanding education research: A
guide to critical reading.
Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Video courtesy of YouTube
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