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Oil

Taken and adapted from Emily Lowes' Untitled Prezi (your description goes HERE)
by

Hector Trevino

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Oil

OMG! We are surrounded by dinosaurs!
INTRO!
By doing this activity you have learned how crude oil is formed, obtained and processed, which are its main chemical components, which products are derived from it and how they are produced. You will also identify the relationship between oil and dinosaurs. And here you will share your knowledge with the rest of the world!
Crude oil: how is it formed?
Oil in nature is made up by carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons). The oil we use right now was once a tiny animal or plant that absorbed the sun's energy (carbon molecules) and over many years they sank into the deepest parts of the ocean and became sediment. The sediment became either natural gas or oil depending on the biomass and heat.
Chemical compounds in oil
Crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons that came from plants and animals millions of years ago. The composition varies depending on where and how it came from.
There are four main types of hydrocarbons found in petroleum:
- Paraffins (15-60%)
- Naphthenes (30-60%)
- Aromatics (3-30%)
- Asphaltics (remainder)
The hydrocarbons present in oil are primarily alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics.
Obtaining oil
Obtaining Oil can be a challenging task because it involves many risks to consider beforehand, like impact on the environment and safety of the rig. There is a main method to obtain oil, this consists various steps. First, primary recovery, an oil well is placed and extracts all it can get via pressure and or pumps. Then, secondary recovery, water is injected via a second hole to create pressure and push the oil up. And the final step, enhanced recovery, is the injection of gases or chemicals to finalize the water's job on extracting the most possible.
Processing oil - fractional distillation
What is fractional distillation? How does it work? Why it is important in processing oil? Since oil has different boiling points, fractional distillation is the process in which substances in oil are separated, allowing them to eventually evaporate. It uses distillation to fractionate. It is important in the processing of oil since crude oil is separated into useful substances, having different hydrocarbons of different boiling points.
The cracking process
The cracking process is made in refineries and its purpose is to make it gasoline. Making gasoline is accomplished by breaking long hydrocarbon chains ad heavy gas-oil by using heat into small hydrocarbon chains. After cracking, the chains go through another type of distillation.
Artificial polymers: what they are and how they are made
Information sources
List them here using APA format
Polymers are large molecules composed of repeated chemical units. Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. They can be classified into four main categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and synthetic fibers. Polymers are formed by chemical reactions in which a large number of molecules called monomers are joined sequentially, forming a chain. In many polymers, only one monomer is used.



Adventures in Energy. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.adventuresinenergy.org/Exploration-and-Production/Extracting-Oil-and-Natural-Gas.html

Polystyrene
is an aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical.
Nylon
is one of the most commonly-used polymers. The amide backbone present in nylon causes it to be more hydrophilic than the polymers discussed above.
Teflon
is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene, and has numerous applications.
Thermoplastic

polyurethane
(TPU) is any of a class of polyurethane plastic. It has many useful properties, including elasticity, transparency, and resistance to oil, grease, and abrasion.
Boundless. “Types of Synthetic Organic Polymers.” Boundless Chemistry. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 26 Aug. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/polymers-24/synthetic-organic-polymers-173/types-of-synthetic-organic-polymers-655-4216/

Adventures in Energy. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.adventuresinenergy.org/Exploration-and-Production/Extracting-Oil-and-Natural-Gas.html

Elemental Composition:
- Carbon (83% to 87%)
- Hydrogen (10% to 14%)
- Nitrogen (0.1% to 2%)
- Oxygen (0.05% to 1.5%)
- Sulfur (0.05% to 6%)
- Metals (<0.01%)
Helmenstein, A. M. (n.d.). Chemical Composition of Petroleum. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/geochemistry/a/Chemical-Composition-Of-Petroleum.htm
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