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Ownership and funding in television and film industries

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Curtis Snelling

on 15 May 2015

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Transcript of Ownership and funding in television and film industries

Ownership and funding in television and film industries
By Curtis.S
Public service TV
Ownership
The public Service broadcasting is where Television is for the benefit of the public as the shows that are shown like the news is to help keep people aware of what is going on in the world so TV use that for a public service in media.






An example of an industry that does public service broadcasting is a British TV industry that is called the BBC and their focus for the public service is to inform, educate and entertain the audience that watch their channels. The BBC is an independent body which is held in trust of the British people.

Lord Reith was the person who thought of the idea to inform,educate and entertain and this would be called PSB which is short for public service broadcasting. The BBC have many channels for the public service as they have BBC news to inform the audience, they also have documentary's on their channels to educate the public and TV shows like soap operas and comedy shows to entertain the public. The BBC also have radio broadcasts for public services as well as TV. An advantage to this that it is a public service which is good as it the public want to be kept informed about worldwide events and the BBC keep them up to date on that.

The BBC, as they are a public industry, do not have commercials in any of their channels as they do not sell advertising time as they focus on the public service broadcaster. There are trust members that are paid and appointed by the British prime minister to represent interest in the British public. An important job within the BBC is Director general who's job is to chair the BBC's executive team. The director general's main responsibility is to run the global workforce across television, radio and online

Advantages: An advantage of having a public ownership of TV can be a benefit for the employes because they all in the Profit of their public ownership. Also another advantage can be that BBC is a benefit to the public as they keep the public in the informed by presenting them with the news to keep them up with events and affairs that are occurring across the world.

Disadvantages: Public ownership does have its disadvantages and one of them is that a company that is public can get a Inefficiency results depending on the size of the corporation. Another disadvantage can be any losses would be met by the taxpayer.
Ownership
Commercial TV
Commercial Film
There are TV industry's that aren't public and they are commercial as they have adverts featuring products to the audience. This can happen half way throw a TV show as the adverts come up with the commercials. TV companies that are a commercial television company earn profit by selling advertising on their channels for the audience to see the commercials when the adverts start.


FOX is a television company that features its shows on sky. Fox is owned by a man named Rupert Murdoch as he owns news corp and therefore owns fox as news corp are the owners of Fox. FOX is a commercial industry as there is a commercial of a product and adverts during a TV show.
A television company that is commercial can be ITV as the company first formed when the two companies Granada and Carlton merged together into one company and later and then became ITV. ITV feature TV shows and movies on their channels and they also have sports on their channels ans reality TV. ITV are a big commercial company as they have multiple ITV channels featuring different type of shows on each of their channels.
Ownership
Private
A private ownership on media is where companies show adult entrainment which is distributed onto DVDs and online. It is not based for the general public. Some are not owned by the government and their profits and losses would directly go to that company and the the government do not take the money and they do not get money provided from the public. That is an advantage for the public as they do not have to pay any money to the company as they fund their own. It can be a disadvantage as it would be hard for a private company to fund their own money as they would not produce media as good as public companies as they get their money through the government and the public.




Corporate Ownership
Corporate in media is where a mass media production is distributed and funded and that is all owned by the corporations when it occurs. There are media corporations that own a lot of other companies and through that they get bigger with their other companies producing media and making the corporate companies that owns them more money and they control most of the media in the countries that they operate in.




Independent companies
This companies that work in the media that is allowed to use distribute their TV, radio and other types of media related technology that is online without the influence of the government or a corporate interest.

An example of a independent production company that distributes their production work is Green bay which is an independent company that works for and produces TV for channels like BBC, Channel 4 and other major TV company broadcaster. Green bay only do their production work in the UK and international. So all the shows that you see on the BBC or channel 4 most to the shows are produced and worked by Green bay as they work with companies like the BBC in order to have there production on TV for the public to watch.
Global companies
These companies have distributed there production around the world so the companies and the films that they own are known globally.

A company that is global is universal studio and they own a lot of film companies. They own the ODEON cinemas which is can be found in more than one country. A company that owns universal is vivendi which through universal actually own the ODEON cinema. They are a mass production company and they ended up becoming France's biggest TV company and then they expanded into telecommunication and mass media and that is what made them a Global company that we see today. They also have there companies productions online and there is a music website that vivendi own is MP3 where music can be purchased online.

Advantages: An advantage towards a global company is that it is a huge company and they can increase their sales and profits as Vivendi own ODEON cinemas across the world and will get a lot of sales and profits as people around the world pay to see their films. Another advantage is that global companies can do their business online as a large percentage of people use the internet and they can get more sales and profits by doing this on the internet.

Disadvantages: Global companies can gave their disadvantages and one of them is that the company is Global and they would have to change and modify their products into a different language so it suits that culture and they would have to do this for a lot countries. Another disadvantages would be the travel expenses as workers would have to travel around the world to observe the other businesses that are in different countries in the world.
Disney are one of the 6 corporate companies that control 90% of the
media in America. Disney is US company that was first established into a huge mass media company when it was founded by Walt Disney on October 16 1923. The target audience was aimed for children as there was movies being made for them but it ended up becoming a popular company with the movies that they produced and was viewed by a lot of audiences. Disney then started to own TV channels that featured TV shows that were owned by Disney as there is a lot of Disney channels. They ended up owning a separate company which was known as Disney PIXAR which became just as popular. Disney are consuming the media market as they own so many companies and have one of their latest company they brought which was Lucas arts. Other companies that are owned by Disney are Mira max and ABC studios and they produce TV and Film.
Vertical integration
This in media means that someone who owns a lot of media companies owns the distribution and production of film and TV. They expand into different points but it is still based on the same production.

A media production company that is vertically integrated can be in Warner bros which is a production company that is owned by Time Warner who are corporate as they own many other companies like HBO studios which produces TV shows. So Warner bros created by Warner bros pictures who worked with Heyday films to produce the final Harry potter film. Then after the production Warner bros would distribute the film so therefore Time Warner would get the profits of the distribution and production as they own Warner bros.

Advantage: Vertical integration does have its perks because they can reduce the costs and improve their efficiency by decreasing transportation expenses and they can also reduce the turnaround time.

Disadvantage: Having a weak leadership of a production company can cause effectiveness to the entire company. Also, employes who work at the bottom of a vertical structure of a production company could feel less valid compared to their work partners who are higher up than them.
Horizontal integration
This means that a media company can develop and by doing this they buy up competitors in the same market. So a media company would buy out another media company that do the same production as them.

An example of Horizontal integration can be a media company called time Warner as they have been developed over the years as they have brought out A lot of production companies. They were founded in 1990 when Time Warner was formed through the merger of Time Inc. Time Warner developed so well that they brought out the competition by buying out A lot of their competitors and other smaller media companies and this caused time Warner to become the multinational media corporation that we see today.

Advantages: Horizontal integration can have advantages to the corporation because it can benefit the employees that work for the corporation as Horizontal integration gives the employees greater freedom and autonomy. The corporation can be adaptable to any changes with the streamlined communication and reporting process.

Disadvantages: There can also be disadvantages when a media corporation decides to horizontally integrate. There is a huge responsibility that project leaders have but will have little authority over their team members. Also there can be a lack of control. By changing to horizontal integration from vertical it can be difficult to change their methods as employees would have to change from being an authority figure and become more like a peer like relation ship with the other employees.
Monopoly
This word in media and business means that a media corporation that own so many other media corporation that they put smaller corporation that are in the same market out of the competition because of the corporation that is more successful as they own A lot of production companies in the market and earning more profits all together.

An example can be multinational media corporations as they own A lot of corporations and by them being multinational that put smaller media corporations out of the competition. Also another example of Monopoly can be Rupert Murdoch and his ownership over media corporations as he owns A lot as he is dominating the digital television with everything that he owns with TV channels such as fox news and sport channels and TV channels.


Funding
License fee
A license fee is where you have to pay a fee for your TV License so you can continue watching TV on Box sets. This can be paid yearly or monthly and by paying the fee it allows you to record Programmes. In order to fund some broadcast company use the license fees that have been paid to help fund the broadcasting
Sky requires a license fee for the public to watch certain programmes as it provides the public with services and the quality of the picture as sky gives the public high definition with their programmes and sports channel
Advantages: There are plenty of advantages of having to pay a License fee to watch TV as it keeps the corporations more productive with the fees as they use the the money from the fees to fund broadcasting and other parts of production. It gives the public a better way of watching TV with the quality of it. It gives a range of TV for people to watch.

Disadvantages: A disadvantage of paying a TV license fee would be a fine for not paying monthly or yearly as the law gives a fine up to £1,000
Subscription
A subscription is where you are able to view a TV content by subscribing to them. It is mainly for additional contents on TV for people to subscribe to it in order for them to get the additional content such as extra cable so the public subscribe to that to get more TV channels to watch.

An example of a Subscription is Sky as they have their subscription as they have a subscription which allows people to get extra TV Programmes by subscribing and the channels that they get by doing this people can get demand by having access to extra content by having Sky GO

Advantages: Subscription can have its advantages one of them can be the flexibility of it as a customer is able to discontinue the service that the customer has subscribed to with no investment loss. There is also no upfront payments for the subscription which is accessible to smaller companies.

Disadvantages: There is soon going to be a total higher coast for subscription that is going to be a higher price than a licensing fee.












Pay per view
This means that viewers are required to pay a fee to watch a specific programme. So you need to subscribe to cable television companies which allows the subscribers to view specific programmes and only subscribers can do for an additional charge.

An example of pay per view can be a website called Intertainer.com as they provide Pay per view to their customers by providing old TV shows such as The Beverly hillbillies and they provided that to customers who want to watch older shows.

Advantage: The advantage of having pay per view is that Pay per view traffic sources are generally cheap this is an advantages because you have access to a pop up and pop under traffic and is considered to be better than pay per click.

Disadvantage: Pay per view has its disadvantages and one of them can be that there is a limited choice of what to watch as there isn't much of a selection.

Sponsorship
This is where TV corporations organize the development of a program and the sponsorship is generally used in advertisement on TV and would have the logo of the corporation that have sponsored the advertisement and the name of the corporation mentioned in the advert that would be featured on the TV.

An example of sponsorship can be VOLVO which are a company who have sponsored sky Atlantic as it can be seen on an advertisement .

Advantages: By getting sponsored or sponsoring can be an advantage because being associated with a company that is popular can cause your company's reputation to be enhanced by doing this. Depending on what company you sponsor you can be granted access into the niche market.

Disadvantages: A disadvantage of sponsorship can be the reputation of the company you have sponsored as there bad reputation for any reason can reflected badly on your company as you are associated to them.
Product placement
This in media means that people who own products in the market pay to get their products featured on TV or film and TV producers and film directors would have to get permission to allow Someones product to be featured on TV
Private Capital
Companies that want to make their investments and funds private would make their investments not on a public exchange but would instead put their investments into private companies to produce and fund their TV and films.
Financial aid
This is where a TV company needs money to help fund and produce TV so they would have to ask for financial aid by getting a loan to help the corporation with their production or broadcasting
Development funding
Development funding is where a director is in the process of starting a film and the director develops it with the the pre-production and develops the funding by hiring cast and crew to work on specific parts of the pre-production with things such as storyboards and shooting lists.

Example quote: We provide development support and distribution funding for digital and cross-media projects produced tangentially to the film, which aim to increase the scope for audience engagement with the film.

Advantages: This development funding can be an advantage because by having digital and cross media projects should increase the audiences engagement towards film with the audience wanting to see and interact with the pre and post release of films. With the audience focusing on the pre release they can see how the director made his movie successful and could have a positive impact on films.

Disadvantage: It can also be a disadvantage because the BFI would not always have enough money to help companies fund their production as the government have most of the income.
Advantages: Commercial TV has its advantages one of them can be that it keeps you updated on the latest products as commercial TV features them. Also commercial TV takes breaks when a Show or film s on so people will not have to worry if they miss anything and gives them time if people need to go to the bathroom or do something around the house.

Disadvantages: Commercial TV can have its disadvantages which are The times the commercials are shown as they run for a long period of time than the show and when the when shows takes breaks the same commercials are featured.
Advantages: there is easy financial control with independent companies because as it is not as big making the management easy with less employees. They can get production done faster as the decision making is just between small groups.

Disadvantages: There may be an easier financial control but with independent companies there can be finical risks as the production could go wrong leading to financial loss or the company is in debt.

Advantage: An advantage of monopoly can be that the multinational corporations own a lot of companies in the market that there is not much competition for them as the companies they own in the market are all working together on each production that they don't have to worry about any smaller companies that they are competing with in the market.
Disadvantage: Monopoly can be a disadvantage for smaller companies as they can easily lose the competition to the bigger companies causing them to not do as well with their production on film and TV as the Multinational corporations have more money and more ownership that they produce better TV and film to the public which makes it harder for the smaller companies to produce TV and film as good as the bigger companies
Advantages: An advantage of corporate ownership can be the Business debt and liability as the owners personal assets is protected from it. Also there is tax free benefits such as insurance and travel. A good advantage can be the change of ownership as this will not affect anything in the corporate company as the management remains the same but with a new owner so the management still operate the same with their productions.

Disadvantages: A disadvantage of corporate ownership can be that there is more federal rules and regulation which can make things difficult for a company.
Advertising
Advertising is where products are featured on TV as a way to introduce there product on TV which is often used on commercial TV during breaks to get the public's attention.

Advantages: By advertising Products on television it reaches larger group of audiences. Another advantage can be that advertisers can find it easy to reach their target audience due to the running time of programmes.

Disadvantages: A disadvantage can be the limited of time for products to be advertise on TV during breaks as there are multiple products being advertised and some products wont get as much to advertise their products





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