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Transcript of 11SCP Chemistry
Structure Rates of
Reaction Metals and
Non-Metals Acids and
Bases Electron arrangement Isotopes Ions Ionic bonds Periodic Table Particle theory Factors effecting the rate of reaction Activity Series Non Metal Properties Metal Properties Chemical Physical Properties of acids and bases Reactions Atoms have a nucleus with protons and neutrons, surrounded by 'shells' of electrons The Number of Protons in the nucleus is called the "Atomic Number"
Atoms are arranged on the periodic table by their atomic number The number of protons and neutrons is called the "Atomic Mass"
Because only protons and neutrons have mass (electons do not), they are the only parts that contribute to an atoms mass 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Mass Charge Proton Neutron Electron 1 1 0 + - 0 Sub-atomic Particles Electrons exist in shells around the nucleus
The closest shell to the nucleus always fills first.
The first electron shell can hold 2 electrons
The second electron shell can hold up to 8 electrons
The third electron shell can hold up to 8 electrons etc. A neutral atom will always have the same number of protons and electrons. An isotope is the atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons. This gives them a different mass.
For example Carbon can exist in 3 different isotopes, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, and Carbon-14
They all have the same atomic number (they all have 6 protons) but they have different numbers of neutrons so have a bigger mass. An ion is an atom that has gained or lost electrons in order to make a full Valence Shell, this gives them a charge. The outer most electron shell is called the "Valence Shell" Electron configuration can be written like this:
This means it has 2 electrons inthe first shell and four electrons in the second shell H (1) He (2) Li (2,1) Na (2, 6, 2) An atom is made of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Protons and Neutrons are found in the nucleus. When an atom gains an election, it gains another negative charge, so ends up with more negative than positive and becomes negatively charged overall.
When an atom loses an electron, it has less ngative charge and therefor becomes positively charged over all. An ionic bond occurs between ions of opposite charge Electron configuration of ions
Write in the same way as with neutral atoms, but they will have more or fewer electrons. Na+ (2,8) Cl- (2, 8, 8) C (2, 4) The periodic table shows all the elements in ascending order of size (number of protons).
It shows the atomic number, mass and can be coloured to show different trends.
Metals are on the left, nonmetals are on the right. The periodic table gives you information about the structure of an atom. Table of Ions Reactants Products Collision Theory When more collisions happen a reaction will be faster More collisions happen when particles are moving faster... Or when there are more particles... So the main factors that effect the rate of reaction are:
Temperature (Particles move faster at higher temperatures)
Concentration (More particles=more collisions)
Surface area (More surface= more collisions)
Presence of a catalyst All substances are made of particles... Solids, Liquids and Gases Worksheet Make models of atoms Write electron configurations An acid will release Hydrogen ions when dissolved into water.
Eg HCl will become H+ and Cl- when in water, this makes the solution acidic.
A base is the opposite, it will remove Hydrogen ions from the water pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution. It is a measure of the number of Hydrogen Ions in solution. Acids and bases react in 'neutralisation' reactions because they are chemically opposite. Acid + Base Salt + Water Generic word equation for an acid-base reaction Example:
Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chloride + Water HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Other acid-base reactions Metal Oxide + Acid Metal Salt + Water Metal Hydroxide + Acid Metal salt + Water Metal Carbonate + Acid Metal salt + carbon dioxide + water Metal Hydrogen Carbonate + acid Metal salt +carbon dioxide + water We use indicators to show the pH of a solution.
Some indicators show if something is an acid or base (eg litmus) and some show the pH value (eg Universal indicator) Universal indicator shows the full spectrum of acids, neutrals and bases (sometimes called Alkali) It comes in both liquid form and as a paper Litmus Blue litmus tuens red under acidic conditions
It stays blue under basic conditions Red litmus turns blue under basic conditions.
It stays red under acid conditions. Allotropes