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Johansen_Water Management (in)Sustainability and Dengue Fever in Latin America

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Igor Johansen

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Johansen_Water Management (in)Sustainability and Dengue Fever in Latin America

Igor Johansen
Roberto Luiz do Carmo

Water Management (in)Sustainability and Dengue Fever in Latin America
The “Urban Revolution” in Latin
America
From rural to predominantly urban population
Urban Infrastructure
Figure 3: Urbanization rate, Latin America and the Caribbean - 1950 and 2010
Dengue Fever
* Emergence and maintenance of epidemic dengue fever in Latin America - Many factors, BUT three principal drivers:
-
Urbanization
- Globalization
- Lack of effective mosquito control
Final Remarks
Population Studies Center and Demography Department - University of Campinas, Brazil
Water in Anthropocene: Challenges for Science & Governance 2013, May 22 – Bonn, Germany
Main Topics
* The “urban revolution” in Latin America
* Urban Infrastructure
* Dengue Fever
Water management and dengue expansion
* Challenges and Possibilities
* Final Remarks
Figure 2: Urban and rural population in Latin America, 1950-2050 (million)
Source: UN-Habitat (2012).The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition.
BUT: 2010
* No access to improved water sources for more than ten million urban dwellers in Latin America and the Caribbean. 74 million did not have improved sanitation facilities;
* Nuances: The estimate of shortfalls in sanitation would be even higher if it included criteria such as whether facilities are connected to a sewage
network
or whether waste is
treated
;
* Related to water: the figure of those ‘under-served’ would increase significantly if
considerations of water quality, affordability and service
continuity
were included.
* Coverage levels in the region are reasonable, but:
some 50 million people lack access to water supply and almost 130 million to sanitation;
* Wastewaters from 370 million urban inhabitants (86%) are discharged without any treatment; and
* There is poor service quality and deficient infrastructure (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2004).
Source: Gubler (2011)
Water management and dengue expansion
* Contrary to the characteristics of the urbanization of developed countries, the larger Latin American cities are characterized by informal settlements or shantytowns where clean water and adequate sanitation are almost non-existent;
* In these areas:
1) Some of the highest population densities in the world;
2) Poverty is a crucial factor;
3) Rural to urban migration due to political conflicts or in search of better living conditions worsened the sanitary situation (GUZMAN & KOURI, 2003).
Source: The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
http://new.paho.org/ecu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=561:fotos-de-criaderos-del-mosquito-transmisor-del-dengue&catid=692:ecu.13-comunicacin-social&Itemid=289
Challenges and
Possibilities
* Dengue: complex phenomenon by its multiple causes:
- Poverty, social inequity and environmental sanitation issues;
* Water management (in)sustainability:
1) Unevenly water distribution
2) Irregular supply
3) Waste waters not treated -> contamination
* Population stock water inside residences -> increasing breading sites for Aedes aegypti.

# What is the best scale of analysis?
# How to inform public policies?
Thank you very much
for your attention!
Brazilian Research Network on Global Climate Change (Rede CLIMA - Cidades) (FINEP)
Igor Johansen (igor@nepo.unicamp.br)
National Institute of Science and
Technology for Climate Change (INCT)
Urbanization and Megacities
(CNPq – FAPESP)
URBAN GROWTH, VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION: social and ecological dimensions of climate change on the Coast of São Paulo (FAPESP)
Micro level
analysis
Source: Gubler (2011)
Main characteristics
What is / Transmission
Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by a benign virus in most cases, and its main vector is the mosquito Aedes aegypti;

Vector reproduction
Stagnant water (not necessarily clean water);

Types
The virus that causes the disease has four serotypes:
DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. There are two forms of dengue: the classic and hemorrhagic;
Figure 7: Aedes aegypti mosquito
Figure 8: Patient with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
References
* Broad Context: Anthropocene ->
human activities are becoming the major driving force of environmental problems at large scale;
* IMPORTANT:
- Population <-> environment:
1) Inseparable
2) Environmental problems modifies people's lives (e. g. they affect people's health);
* Essential: inter-relationship between micro and macro scales, conditioning social and environmental processes.
Figure 1: Urban population by major geographical area (in per cent of total population), 1950-2050
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision. New York, 2012
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision. New York, 2012
Figure 4. Trends in Urban and Access to Water and Sanitation, Latin America, 1990-2010
Source: UN-Habitat (2012).The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition.
ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE
CARIBBEAN (ECLAC), United Nations (2004). Water supply and sanitation in Latin America (moving toward sustainability following two decades of reforms). Presentation by Andrei S. Jouravlev.
GUBLER, D. J. (2011). Dengue, Urbanization and Globalization: The Unholy Trinity of the 21st Century. Tropical Medicine and Heatlh. Vol. 39 No. 4 Supplement, 2011, pp. 3-11.
GUZMAN, M. G.; KOURI, G. (2003). Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: lessons and challenges. Journal of Clinical Virology 27, 1 /13.
UN-HABITAT (2012).The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition.
UNITED NATIONS, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision. New York, 2012.
Port-au-Prince - Haiti
Lima - Peru
Figures 5 and 6: Gap in water coverage.
Source: UN-Habitat (2012).The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition.
Symptoms
Classic dengue fever: sudden onset of fever and a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including frontal headache, retro-orbital pain, body aches, nausea and vomiting, joint pains, weakness, and rash;
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: besides the symptoms cited above, bleeding can occur occasionally, shock and death;

Vaccine does not exist.
Source: http://www.olaserragaucha.com.br/noticias/geral/18793/Encontradas-larvas-do-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-em-Carlos-Barbosa.html
Source: http://naturalunseenhazards.wordpress.com/2011/02/08/according-to-a-new-study-from-brandeis-university-the-economic-burden-of-dengue-fever-in-the-western-hemisphere-is-about-2-1-billion-per-year-and-travel-warnings-for-argentina-where-authorities-are/
Figure 9: Countries or areas where dengue has been reported, 2011
Source: World Heath Organization (WHO), 2012. Available: http://www.who.int/ith/en/
Figure 10: The emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas associated with introduction of new virus serotypes and the development of hyperendemicity
Figure 11: Geographic spread of DHF in the Americas, 1981 (A) and 2011 (B)
# How to provide public services here?
Shantytown in Rio de Janeiro
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