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Research Methods Midterm Study Guide
Transcript of Research Methods Midterm Study Guide
Thinking Like a Scientist Chapter 2:
Getting Started Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter five Areas of Psychology Psychotherapy Social
Psychology Cognition Psychobiology Yes,
time to learn And zoom in. ... A lot Study brain organization Or the chemicals in the brain Psychobiologists have discovered a link
between schizophrenia & Parkinson's disease
and various neurotransmitters in the brain. Parkinson's Disease Neurotransmitters schizophrenia They're interested in how people Solve problems Use reasoning
and logic Make decisions Use Language Process and store Retrieve info Human
Development How being part of the
group affects the individual Sources of knowledge Estimate the effectiveness of therapy SUPERSTITIONS Subjective evidence INTUITION " I have a funny feeling about this." AUTHORITY Based on trust. TENACITY Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. Repeat something until it's true. RATIONALISM EMPIRICISM objective observations SCIENCE empiricism + rationalism Example: Memory.
You can't see it,
but you can measure it. Systematic
Knowledge But they hide when you look for them ... Empirically
Problems The Scientific (Critical Thinking) Approach and Psychology Not random. Make sense of observations. Theory
(Hypothesis) Example: The relationship between vitamin C and how many colds people have. Not just ask people if they take vitamin C and if they've had colds Have random groups either take vitamin C or not. I don't really
remember, but I'll
say yes. Have you had
a cold? It can be observed
And tested by others Submitting to a scientific journal. Most journals are peer-reviewed.
Others can replicate and demonstrate reliability. For example: Many people claim they were abducted by aliens. But there is no evidence to verify. If a theory cannot be tested using empirical techniques, then scientists are not interested. (Like if there is life
after death.) Boo! Open to principle
of falsifiability. Stated in a way that it is possible
to refute or discomfirm it. Then there's
pseudoscience Example: There are little green men
living in your brain ... Basic Applied & Research "Just for fun."
Conducted in laboratory
Can lead to application Solve problems
Businesses and government
"Most useful" Research Description Explanation Prediction Goals of science Second nature
Describe a behavior
Useful in the early stages
Determine differences Correlational research methods
(Correlation is not causation.) Why?
Identify the cause
Must eliminate alternative explanations. (Impose control.) Research
in Science Predictive
Method Case Study
Method Correlational Quazi-Experimental Independent variable Naturalistic observation
Laboratory In-depth study of one or more individuals.
Descriptive in nature Questioning on a topic an describing their responses Allows large groups
Concern over sampling and wording
Sample must be random Population Sample Measures two things
Vary the same = positive
Vary diff. = negative Example & Correlation does not
equal causation. Compare naturally-occurring groups
Check if there are difference between groups.
Allows us to predict .
Use subject (participant) variable. Age
Method Describe and predict
Determine cause-and-effect relationship
Why behavior occurs Dependent variable (manipulated) (measured) Independent
variable Dependent variable Control group = standard condition
Experimental group = receives the treatment Use random assignment to
eliminate alternative explanations Proof & Disproof When scientist test theories they do not want to prove them true. Example:
You're a cop and have to make sure the drinking age rule is being followed. Drinking a
beer 16 yrs old Drinking a Coke 22 yrs old To find out if a person is drinking alcohol, then the person is 21 or over. You ask the 16 yr old.
Look to prove it false. Reviewing Literature Searching published studies
Library Research (staff) Journals Psychological Abstracts
Social Science Citation Index
Dissertation Abstracts Published by APA.
Contains abstracts or brief summaries
Articles in in Psych or related Online version of Psych Abstracts
Updated monthly Search for subsequent articles
From social and behavioral sciences Borrow resources from
other libraries. Abstracts or brief summaries
in sociology and related disciplines. An online database
From psych journals Online database searches scholarly journals
Also popular media sources
Often including full-text articles Clearing house for research
related areas Abstracts of doctoral dissertations
from hundreds of universities in the
U.S. and Canada. Published monthly. Results Method Discussion Introduction Abstract Major sections of an empirical article I used this. Discusses each section
Describes the problem & purpose
Findings, statistical significance
a summary. Problem
Purpose components How the study was conducted
procedure Summarizes data
Type of statistics
Description NOT explanation
Tables or figures This is what happened, yo. Results are evaluated
Restatement of prediction
Relationship between results and theory
Future research Ethical Standards Developed because
of Nazi war crimes in the name of "research". Nuremberg
Form Institutional Review Board IRB Coding should be used
to label participants.
Kept separate coding Means not revealing true
nature. Alter results. Deception And the Tuskegee syphilis study. People had no idea they had it.
Couldn't be treated. Committee
Evaluate projects for humans Consent to participate.
Inform the general nature. This is kept for 2-3 years
and given a copy to participant. A B C Just say the general
nature of the study.
Debrief afterward. Debriefing Description of true nature
Purpose of study
Benefits of research
Alleviate discomfort "At risk" "at minimal risk" Risk Subjects are classified as being "at risk" or "at minimal risk." Obedience study
IRB weigh the risk w. benefits
Privacy compromised no physical or emotional risk
problem-solving Defining, Measuring,
Variables Operational definition A definition in terms of operations (activities). Researchers use it to measure ... ... or manipulate a variable. And to replicate
a study. Properties of measurement Identity Receive diff.
on ID. Magnitude Numbers reflect order.
Numbers represent variable measured. Some are larger. Equal Unit Size When the diff. of 1 is the same on the scale. Both differences = an inch. Absolute Zero Absence of variable being measured. Ex. Time studying = 0 These properties of measurement
are in the 4 scales of measurement. 4 scales of measurement Nominal categorical variables
not analyze mathematically Ex. race & gender Ordinal categorized
form ranks on continuum
lack equal unit size & absolute 0 A+
B- Interval Intervals between # on scale are equal
Have identity, magnitude & equal unit size No absolute zero.
(Bc cannot form ratios
based on scale. 100 not
twice as hot as 50.) Ratio Has all 4 properties of measurement. 1 property
of measurement (identity) 2 properties of
measurement (identity, magnitude) 3 properties of
measurement (identity, magnitude,
equal unit size) 4 types of
measurement Types of
Measurement classified into 4 categories Self-Report Measure Behavioral Cognitive Affective Do? Think? Feel? Tests Personality Test Aptitude test
(Ability) Affective self-report measure. Measures competence.
Like a school exam. Measures potential to do something.
Intelligence test. Behavioral Measure 1. Observing and recording 2. Develop a coding system 3. Problems? a. direct
b. indirect a. counting
b. classifying a. rely on accuracy of humans
b. numerical coding error
d. ppl might not act natural when observed Physical Measures Measure of physical activity with machine. More objective than behavioral, but humans run and interpret data. Examples: Galvanic Skin Response Electromyography Electroencephalogram measure emotional arousal measure muscle contractions measure electrical activity in the brain Reliability Consistency Stability In a measurement instrument Want to measure the same
each time it's used. ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT Method Error Does the individual taking the measurements know how to use the instruments? Is the measuring equipment working correctly? Trait Error Were subjects being truthful?
Did they feel well? of measurement Formula to measure reliability Reliability = True score True score + Error score