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Reported speech in Ancient Greek -- Between direct and indirect discourse

Presented at the CLCG Colloquium, Groningen Mar 18, 2011 Emar Maier http://sites.google.com/site/emarmaier/

Emar Maier

on 18 March 2011

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Transcript of Reported speech in Ancient Greek -- Between direct and indirect discourse

Orality & Literacy direct Recitative Ambig Systematic! Xenophon Herodotus Lysias the Greek language added another form of narration to its existing stock, one which is neither direct nor indirect but mediates between the two giving the actual words but having the appearance of hypotaxis in being introduced by the conjuntion . . . not only introduces an indirect statement after verbs of speaking but has also an extensive recitative use equivalent to our quotation marks in direct statement 'that' 'whether' Cadbury 1929 Spieker 1884: 'that' unify recitatives and switches as mixed quotation Proposal: No ambiguous complementizers Formal semantic account of the blended interpretation Quine says that "quotation has a certain anomalous feature" Quine says that quotation "has a certain anomalous feature" = = 'that' = indirect discourse 2D or presuppositional semantics of
mixed quotation: use + mention CLCG Colloquium Quine says that quotation "has a certain anomalous feature" Covert quotation marks in Greek but not English... ? Monsters quotation! indirect speech
+ optional hidden operator Formal Semantics ...by means of gesture, intonation, roleplay, voices,... Mixed Indirect switches - complementizers Are the quoted words used or mentioned? Obviously mentioned since the words are Quine’s own, and I want to mark the fact. But equally obvious is the fact that the words are used; if they were not, what follows the word ‘quotation’ would be a singular term, and this cannot be if I have produced a grammatical sentence. Quine says that quotation "has a certain anomalous feature" = Quine said the words: "has a certain anomalous feature" + Quine said that quotation has a certain anomalous feature + Bush said that the enemy misunderestimates me = Bush said the words "misunderestimates me" Bush said that the enemy "misunderestimates me" 2D analysis Presupposition George says that Tony is his "bestest" friend He said recently on a radio program that it would be "news to me" if anyone in his family had owned slaves. Direct mention inference errors, nonsense indexicals shift And I even pissed off the youngest one so much that he told me to quote unquote "stick a lamp up my ass." =>Quine used the words "has a certain anomalous feature" grammatical incorporation *Quine says that quotation the phrase "has a certain anomalous feature" Indirect use inference indexicals avoided/adjusted =>Quine said that quotation has a certain anomalous feature Bush said that the enemy "misunderestimates me" Bush said that the enemy has the property that he expressed
with the words "misunderestimates me" Pragmatic enrichment Quine says that quotation "has a certain anomalous feature" =Quine says that quotation has a certain anomalous feature
(+ metalinguistic implicature) = Bush said that the enemy misunderestimates me Bush said that the enemy "misunderestimates me" mention inference

deferred use inference

shifted indexicals

errors/nonsense: type fit required

non-constituent quotation?

occasional adjustment? pragmatic presupposition resolution determines the relevant property And I even pissed off the youngest one so much that he told me to quote unquote "stick a lamp up my ass." She allowed as how her dog ate "strange things, when left to its own devices" The dean asked that a student "accompany every professor" Whose house did they say the CIA "searched without warrant"? movement *Quine said that quotation "ajksdasdasd"
*Quine said that quotation "an anomalous feature" Denial strategy Reported Speech
in Ancient Greek Switches & recitatives in Greek & English Hypothesis 2 quotation marks are invented to disambiguate reported speech perspectives in writing transition to literacy... oral tradition 800 B.C. Homer 500 B.C. 50 A.D.
Luke 450 B.C. Xenophon 400 B.C. Herodotus 1550 A.D. real quotation marks (37-100A.D.) Still traces of orality? Lysias Quine said that quotation "has a certain anomalous feature" Summing up Luke Ancient Greek Direct Indirect vs
uity? John said that OP [ I am a hero ]

Dad screamed that OP [ he would never allow me to
marry that bastard Webster ]

OP [ Tomorrow she would finish that paper ] and to point out also how foolish it was to ask for a guide from this man with the property that he expressed as "whose enterprise we are ruining" " " I said that the proposition that I expressed with the
words "I am not going to kill you" is true " " Emar Maier Ancient Greek? Indexicals: adjusted Non-addressee-oriented
expressives Indirect imperatives Child wh-movement Expressives: adjusted Speech acts: paraphrased Grammatical transparency home!" he was coming here today Otto said that Joe said that that bastard is rich Mary said that I should go home My father screamed ...NPI licensing ...movement: wh, cleft, focus quotation boundary blocks... ...de re construal ...variable binding: anaphora, quantifiers that + subordinate clause Faithful to original content Mary said, "My son was with me", but I don't think Binding across quotation marks Hans hat dir doch gestern schon gesagt, ruf an John said mom did Deanne ask play?" American Sign Language ihn heute his that he would never allow me to marry that bastard Webster ruf call ,"Can I Where he was Every student said that he had done his homework Ralph said that that ugly car of his was beautiful What did Otto say he is? ...variable binding: anaphora, quantifiers, ellipsis ...NPI licensing ...movement: wh, cleft, focus indirect speech embedding allows... ...de re construal Sam didn't say that he had any complaints It was John that Mary said she loved the most But some of them clearly hadn't Speech acts: verbatim Grammatical opacity *Sam didn't say, "I have any complaints" *What did Otto say, "I am" *Ralph said, "That ugly car of mine is beautiful" *Every student said, "he did his homework" Indirect Direct & Free Indirect Style Shifted indexicality Otto said, " I'm going there tomorrow Mary said, " Go Joe said, " That bastard is rich" " Tomorrow she would finish the paper She thought, " finish the paper" She thought that finish the paper jon ˇjegna ne-nn yil-all
John heroññ he-said =John said that he's a hero Amharic Catalan Sign Language Slave Uyghur Navajo Italian Sign Language Engenni Aghem Tamil Zazaki I-am ne-nn she would the following day Tomorrow I will Palin said, "Obviously, gotta stand behind our North Korean allies" Palin said that the US should support its North Korean allies Indexicals: shifted Expressives: shifted Faithful to original words Quotation marks Between Discourse March 18, 2011 Groningen Hypothesis 1 In face-to-face context, speakers mark perspectives paralinguistically Corollary Oral cultures need no strict, grammatical direct--indirect distinction ...clausally and subclausally :) 19-Sep-82 11:44 Scott E Fahlman :-)
From: Scott E Fahlman <Fahlman at Cmu-20c>

I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers:


Read it sideways. Actually, it is probably more economical to mark
things that are NOT jokes, given current trends. For this, use

:-( no need for quotation marking? Ancient writing ORFORCOMMASQU
ENWORDSPACING ancient modern oral silent practice professional reader elite performance solitary Reading fast information c c c c c c Reading culture leaves traces of orality in ancient writing e.g. unmarked subclausal perspective shifts Conclusions Unified appraoch to switches and recitatives

Unambiguous complementizers

Formal semantics of mixed quotation

Difference between English & Greek
explained as traces of orality
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