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Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Transcript of Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Argument and Persuasion
Ethos: Ethical Appeal
Appeal to others' values
Build your own credibility
How do you build your credibility?
Establish yourself as:
Understanding to other sides
Try to find common ideology.
PATHOS: emotional appeal
Does not have to make sense to be effective
Any emotion is fair game
- Eric Cartman
An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a definite proposition. ...an argument is an intellectual process... contradiction is just the automatic gainsaying of anything the other person says.
A proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn
A plan suggested for acceptance; a proposal
An argument is a deliberate attempt to move beyond just making an assertion. When offering an argument, you are offering a series of related statements which represent an attempt to support that assertion — to give others good reasons to believe that what you are asserting is true rather than false.
Something declared or stated positively, often with no support or attempt at proof
Assertion-- Abortion is murder
Unfortunately, most arguments aren’t presented in such a logical and clear manner as the above examples, making them difficult to decipher sometimes. But every argument which really is an argument should be capable of being reformulated in such a manner. If you cannot do that, then it is reasonable to suspect that something is wrong.
How do you get there? Watch the argument unfold.
Premises that must be agreed on first
1. Killing, not in self-defense, is murder
2. Babies cannot harm you
3. Abortion is the act of killing an unborn baby
4. Once a baby begins to grow, it is alive
5. If something is living it will continue to grow, unless it is killed (terminated) or dies naturally
6. Manual termination of a life is killing
Then: if you agree to all of the above...
Abortion is murder
Assertion: Abortion is not murder
1. Different interpretations of "life" exist
2. Some believe that life begins at conception
3. Some believe that life begins at heartbeat
4. Some believe that life begins at birth
5. Some believe that life begins when a baby can live on its own outside of its mother
6. There has been no universal determination of when life begins
7. You cannot kill something if it is not alive
Abortion is not murder