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Biology

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by

Jillian Hubbard

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Biology

Biology
Plankton
Benthos
Fish
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Life in the Ocean
Buoyancy
Surface Area/Volume ratio increases with decreasing radius
higher ratio=more buoyancy
small, circular plankton
intricate fringes on tropical fish
Trapped gas/oils
Taxonomy
Domains
Archaea (pro)
Bacteria (pro)
Eukarya
KPCOFGS
Other Nekton
Light
euphotic zone= sufficient for photosynths (200m in open ocean)
twilight zone
aphotic zone= no light
Adaptations
Vertical migration
DSL
Bioluminsescence
Burglar Alarm
Communication
Lure prey
Coloration
transparent
countershading
chromatophores
disruptive coloration
cryptic coloration
Temperature
Eukaryotes= low tolerance (up to 62'C)
No organisms above 350'C
hyperthermophiles (121'C Archaean)
psychrophiles-cold lovers
cryoprotectants allow psychrophiles to live below -0.8'C: glycoproteins, DMSP, fatty acids
poikilotherms rely on heat conductance (no metabolic control)
endotherms prevent heat loss, no metabolic control
homeotherms maintain constant, warm temp
coldest- brine channels (-35'C)
warmest- shallow, warm tropics (30'C)
Symbioses
ecological relationship btw 2 species
commensalism= one benefit
mutualism= both benefit
parasitism= one harmed
Productivity
Different pigments utilize different wavelengths
Chlorophyll a~420nm and 660nm
Phycoerythrin~400nm-500nm
Fucoxanthin~ 450nm-600nm
Measuring Production
production= amt C
gross pp= total amt organic material produced
net pp= gross - amt of organic C used in respiration
productivity= rate of production
standing crop/stock= total biomass of phytops at any time
growth & reproduction vs death & grazing
calculate biomass
count cells in a small sample
[chlorophyll a]
satellite analysis of ocean color
Nutrients!
Photosynth ratio O2:C:N:P=109:41:7.2:1
Redfield ratio C:N:P=106:16:1
nutrient regeneration= remineralization= organic matter --> inorganic constituents
cyanobac- nitrogen fixers (N2 --> nitrogen organics)
cyanobac
consumed by organisms
Controls on pp
bottom-up
nutrients
temp
light
top-down
grazing
varies w/ latitude
polar= controlled by light. summer bloom
temp= bloom in early spring (nutrients) and small bloom in late summer (light)
tropics= controlled by nutrients. constant
HNLC
High Nitrate Low Chlor a
sufficient nutrients and light, but low biomass??
C:Fe 100,000:1
"All flesh is grass" -Sir Alister Hardy
Diatoms!
+10,000 species
marine, fresh, pelagic, benthic
like well-mixed water
40% marine pp
fucoxanthin, chlor a & c
frustule= siliceous cell wall
centric vs pennate
Silica used in filters, silver polish, toothpaste, petroleum
Picoplankton
<2 microns
green, cyanobacteria
Nanoplankton
2-20 microns
diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccos
Microplankton
20-200 microns
net, diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccos
Macroplankton
200microns- 2mm
40%
Dinoflagellates
peridinin, chlor a& c
cellulose wall
survive low-nutrients (mixiotrophic)
bioluminescent
Coccolithophores
Calcium Carbonate plates= coccoliths
Coccoliths are shed
coccoliths reflect light for satellites
1997 Eastern Bering Sea- Aquamarine bloom
smaller than diatom/dino
Cyanobacteria!
bacterioplankton
most abundant in low-nutrient open oceans
oldest lineage of O2 producers
~1micron (picoplankton)
chlor a, chlor b (Prochlorococcus), phycoerythrin
form stromatolites (3.5 byo deposits)
Prochlorococcus
chlor b, not phycoerythrin
use ammonium, not nitrate
between 40'N - 40'S
10-50% net pp in open ocean
Trichodesmium
main N gas fixers
Other Bacterioplankton
sulfur oxidizers- chemosynths at hydrothermal vents
decay bacteria

Nuisance HABs
high phytop population clogs fish nets
spiny diatoms catch on fish gills
unattractive water --> less recreation
Toxic HABs
biomag (human dose ~1mg)
Holoplankton- entire life cycle
Jellies
Copepods
Unicellular Protozoans
Meroplankton- planktonic larvae of benthos/nekton
veliger= snail
nauplius= barnacle
zoea= crab
Distribution
protozoans reproduce rapidly (cell division)
multicellulars have 3-5 generations/yr @ low latitudes, 1 @ high latitudes
convergence zones (herbivores follow)
vertical migration 10-500m
DSL
Crustaceans!
Copepods (C Maxillopoda, SC Copepoda)
herbivores
Krill (C Malacostraca, O Euphausiacea)
omnivores
5yrs
10,000 eggs at a time
eat >.5 body weight/day
double population 3-4 times/yr
chitin
Chaetognaths
arrow worms
2-3cm, transparent
carnivore
Sagitta setosa
inhabits North Sea water mass exclusively (used to track)
Foraminiferans
calcareous protozoan
warmer regions
Radiolarians
siliceous protozoan
spines + pseudopodia (catch food)
warmer regions
Tintinnids
protozoans
moving cilia
"bell animals"
Gelatinous Zooplankton
Ctenophora
8 rows of beating cilia
carnivores
Tunicates
chordates
ex: Salps
herbivores/scavengers
Coelenterata/Cnidaria
3 cell layers & 1 cavity
stingers= nematocysts
inc. true jellies
Jawless Fish
Class Agnatha
hagfish, lamprey
ectotherms
gut- no distinct stomach
slimy skin- no scales
Class Chondrithyes (450mya)
SC Elasmobranchii
SuO Selachii =Sharks
SuO Batoidea= Rays
SC Holocephali =Chimaera
Cartilaginous Fish
Fish Shape
Bony Fish
Class Osteichthyes
SC Actinopterygii- Ray fins
SC Teleostei
SC Sarcopterygii- Lobe fins
bodies





Sharks
placoid scales covered with dentine (dermal denticles)= abrasive, easily replaceable, 7 layers
ovoviviparous= internal egg incubation (young feed off yolk sac, not mother). live birth
strong eyesight, smell, hearing, electrical sense
pit-organs all over body act as taste buds
detect 1 ppb
lateral lines= touch, vibration, current, pressure
ampullae of lorenzini= above nostrils (electric signals)
350 species, inc biggest fish (15m)
oil-rich liver=buoyancy
Skates & Rays
450-550 species
5 ventral gill slits
mostly carnivores: fish, crustaceans, (manta rays are planktivores)
thin whip-like tails (stingrays have toxic barbs)
electric organs up to 200volts (skate tails/ray wings)
most rays- ovoviviparous
skates- oviparous (eggs)
Ratfish
400mya
depths
1 gill opening
venomous spine on dorsal
males have retractable sex organs on their foreheads
operculum
3 tooth plates
Most extant fish are teleost fish
spine terminates at caudal peduncle
jaws protrude from mouth
homocercal tail
Sturgeon, Gar, Bowfin are not teleosts
Deep-Sea Species
mesopelagic
small
luminescent
large mouth
hinge jaws
needle teeth
Cyclothone= most common
bathypelagic
small
no scales/spines
black
small eyes
big mouth
expand stomachs
water:protein ratio is high
Fisheries
Food & Agricultural Organization via UN
1950=21million metric tons. 2004=86million metric tons.
2.6billion people= 20% animal protein intake
surimi=processed pollock meat
anchovies off Peru (world's greatest catch)
tuna (ICCAT) Gulf & Mediterranean
salmon in Pacific NW
atlantic cod protected in canada, iceland & maine
Mammals
Class Mammalia
homeotherms
3-10x myoglobin as in terrestrial
viviparous
land/water or just water
Whales!
Order Cetacea
SO Odontoceti
SO Mysticeti
F Balaenopteridae
88 species
rotated caudal
Minke- most abundant
Narwhal- most northerly
Gray-most coastal. first off US Endangered list 1994
California Gray & Humpback= long migrations (cold water-feeding, warm-breeding)
Bowhead, Beluga, Narwhal remain in cold waters
Whaling
Norse (800 AD)
Basque (1500's)
Dutch, British, Japanese (1600's)
US, Scandinavian (1700's)
Svend Fo/yn, Norwegian= harpoon gun (1868)
By 1930, 4% blue whale population
IWC 1946

1982 moratorium on commerical whaling
right whales- most endangered
(Australia, Argentina, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Japan, New Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, S. Africa, Soviet U., US)
Dolphin and Porpoise
mostly temperate/tropical
porpoises >30knots
bycatch
32 spec. dolphin, 6 porpoise
dolphins- elongated beaks, cone teeth, curved dorsal, blowhole
porpoises- spade teeth, portly, triangle dorsal
Pinnipeds!
O Carnivora, SO Pinnipedia
hunt fish and squid at sea, breed on land
hair+blubber
True seals: ear holes, cannot rotate/stand on rear flippers
Eared seals: ear flaps, mobile rear flippers
Walrus (Odobenidae): no external ears, mobile rear flipper, tusks like sled runners
1 male:50 females
give birth on land/ice
Sea Otters!
O Carnivora, F Mustelidae (weasel), SF Lutrinae
shallow, coastal water
eat 25% body weight/day: shellfish, urchins, abalone
no blubber: thickest fur (exploited)
smallest marine mammal
always in water
keystone in kelp beds
Sirenia
only herbivorous marine mammals
manatees-warm, coastal bays, Atlantic & Caribbean
dugongs- SE Asian, African, Australian seas
loss of habitat (sea grass beds), hunted for tusks, injured by boats
Last Stellar Sea Cow killed for meat in 1768
Polar Bears
Ursus maritimus
top predator in Arctic
live 25 years
carnivores (ringed seals, walruses, dead whales)
fur+blubber
30km per day
2 cubs/pregnancy (stay with mom 2 yrs)
threatened as of 2008
Marine Mammal Protection Act
1972 via US Congress
bans "taking"= harvesting, hunting, capturing, killing, attempting to
1994- Native subsistence, scientific permits
Still issues: habitat degredation, sonar(?) & harassment
Birds
Class: Aves
3% of the 10,000 bird species= marine
nest onshore
homeotherms
webbed feet, preen in feathers, light bones, air sacs
developed vision
drink sea water: excrete salt over eyes/through nose
conserve water: uric acid
high metabolism
longer, pointed wings= more pelagic
Tubenoses
O Procellariiformes
Albatrosses, Petrels, Shearwaters
Wandering Albatross= most oceanic (4-5 years at sea), largest wingspan (3.5m)
Wilson's Petrel= smallest oceanic bird
eat squid, crab, surface fish
Penguins
O Sphenisciformes
no air sacs & heavy bones --> can't fly
wings mod --> flippers
10mph swimming
mostly S hemisphere
largest= Emporer (1m)
smallest= Little Bue (40cm)
1-2 eggs per clutch
Order Pelicaniformes
Pelicans, Cormorants, Boobies, Frigate Bird
strong fishersbig beaks
Pelicans- pouch beak
Cormorants- no preen (better dive)
Order Charadriiformes
Gulls, Terns, Auks, Puffins
strong fliers
opportunistic eaters
Arctic tern migrates pole to pole (35,000km)
auks & pelicans limited to North
Last great auks killed off Iceland 1844
Reptiles
Class Reptilia
O Chelonia
O Squamata
O Crocodilia
poikilotherms
only extant marine lizard= Galapagos Iguana
Sea snakes
warm Pacific & Indian (no Atlantic spec)
poisonous
small mouths
flat tails for swimming
nostils seal off underwater
skin permeable to gases (better dives)
mostly ovoviviparous
Sea Turtles
2 families: Leatherback & other 7
heads don't retract
up to 100 eggs/clutch
Green
herbivores (young are opportunists)
Hawksbill
hooked beak
eat algae, sponges
found at convergence zones
Loggerhead
estuaries & contl shelves
eat sargassum, crabs, shellfish
Kemp's Ridley
Gulf of Mexico
eat sargassum, crabs, mollusks
most endangered
Leatherback
largest (~907kg/2000lbs)
eat jellies
Algae & Plants
Corals
Animals
Hydrothermal Vents
Algae
holdfast
stipe
blade
ex: kelp
simple
carbs
Plants
roots
stem
leaf
ex: eelgrass
store starch

Algae
algae color= reflected light by pigments
green absorbs red & blue (shallow)
brown absorbs blue & green (mid)
red absorbs blue & violet (deepest)
green= mostly fresh. store starch
brown= entirely marine (inc. kelps)
red= mostly marine. most abundant. most advanced.
Marine Plants
seagrasses prefer muddy stubstrate
habitat, herbivores, detritus
mangroves trap moisture, excrete salt, surface roots
150,000spec (only 3,000 pelagic)
80% epifaunal
Rocky Shore
distinct vertical zonation
supralittoral only submerged during storms
crusting algae & lichens
air-breathing snails
barnacles
littoral zone submerged with every high tide
barnacles
mussels & chitons
brown algae
crabs& worms hide in mussel beds
snails
sublittoral almost always submerged
anemones
echinoderms
sponges
red algae
Tide pools
either warm & saline (evap) or cool & fresh (rain catchment)
volume^ and depth^ --> stability^
Soft Substrate
less zonation; exposed critters can burrow
fewer algae --> fewer herbivores
finer particles= poor gas exchange (anaerobic)
home to detritovores
25-50% material bacteria decompose --> cell material
Deep-Sea Floor
stable, cold, dark, soft substrate
mainly meiofauna (<2mm)
nematodes, crustaceans, annelids, glass sponges, sea spiders, snails
Reefs
most diverse & structurally complex community
fringe 1/6 world coastline
Great Barrier= 2000km
23'-25'C between 30'N&S
Carribeans down to 50m
Pacific/Indian down to 150m
Attached to islands (atolls attach to sunken islands)
Coral Animals
calcareous polyps=individul corals
zooxanthellae= dinalfagellates contribute to nutrition (60%) and skeleton construction
polyps feed at night (shading zooxanthellae doesn't matter)
grow 1-5 cm/year
March 1977, WHOI's Alvin discovered vents along Galapagos Rift
300 vent species discovered since
fast-growing clams! 4cm/yr
3m tube worms
chimneys grow up to 10m/yr
black smokers= hottest
Cold seeps off Florida, Oregon, Japan
Threats
coral bleaching= corals expel zooxanthellae
3 bleachings between 1876-1979; 60 between 1979-1990
Acanthaster- Crown of Thorns sea star eat polyps
sea star larvae thrive in runoff (agriculture & coast development)
Coralline Lethal Orange Disease
Ageing Fish
Fish have rings on their scales
These rings are used to age the fish (1 ring=1 year)
Full transcript