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Transcript of 1984
Eric Arthur Blair
Animal Farm and 1984
About the Author
Point of View
Techniques and Philosophy
1984 by George Orwell
Eric Arthur Blair
After recovering, moed back to London and taught
The protagonist of the novel.Winston Smith is a outer party member who hates the totalitarian control.Winston is restless, fatalistic, and concerned about large-scale social issues
Julia is Winston’s lover and the only other person who Winston can be sure hates the Party and wishes to rebel against it as he does. Julia is sensual, pragmatic, and generally content to live in the moment and make the best of her life.
A mysterious, powerful, and sophisticated member of the Inner Party whom Winston believes is also a member of the Brotherhood, the legendary group of anti-Party rebels.
He never appears in the novel, and he may not actually exist, Big Brother is the perceived ruler of Oceania. Big Brother’s image is stamped on coins and broadcast on the unavoidable telescreens, it haunts Winston’s life and fills him with hatred and fascination.
Appears to be a kind old man that agrees with Winston`s rebellion but in reality he is member of the thought police trained to trick rebellions to expose themselves.
An intelligent, outgoing man who works with Winston at the Ministry of Truth. Syme specializes in language.
A fat, obnoxious, and dull Party member who lives near Winston and works at the Ministry of Truth.
Telescreens are used as a information collector, by spying upon the Party members during their time outside
Placed in the houses of all Party members, in order to keep them in check
Forms of propaganda in order to celebrate the Party's victories and disguisew their shortcomings.
The leader of the brotherhood. The Party describes him as the most dangerous and treacherous man in Oceania.
"The telescreen received and transfered simultaneously. Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard." (Orwell, 4)
The face of Big Brother symbolizes the Party's dominance and authority over its people. He is a reassurance to most people, but he is also an open threat.
The Place Where There Is No Darkness
"Nearly all children nowadays were horrible. What was worst of all was that by means of such organizations as the Spies they were systematically turned into ungovernable little savages, and yet this produced in them no tendency whatever to rebel against the discipline of the Party. On the contrary, they adored the Party and everything connected with it… All their ferocity was turned outwards, against the enemies of the State, against foreigners, traitors, saboteurs, thought-criminals. It was almost normal for people over thirty to be frightened of their own children." (Orwell, 26 - 27)
The words first come to Winston in a dream and eventually, Winston does meet O’Brien in the place where there is no darkness but instead of being the paradise Winston imagined, it is merely a prison cell in which the light is never turned off. The darkness is a symbolic representation of the Party, an idealistic place of freedom. However, “The place where there is no darkness” can be a foreshadowment of Winston’s despairing future in the interrogation room.
The book’s most visible symbol of the Party’s constant monitoring of its subjects. They use it to blare constant propaganda and observe citizens, the telescreens also symbolize how totalitarian government abuses technology for its own needs instead of using it to improve civilization.
Are introduced to Youth Leagues, Junior Spies, and other organizations for conditioning
Taught to love the Party as well as report any signs of conspiracy against the Party
This quote demonstrates the Party's control over its people. No member of the government is free from the party's control, as the members are constantly surveillenced by the Thought Police, who arrest those charged with thoughtcrime, rebellious thoughts against the Party; illustrating the theme of control.
The use of children as spies illustrate an alternate form of surveillance and dominance that the Party holds over its people. Members cannot avoid the influence and teachings of Big Brother, even within their own homes, as they are monitored by their children.
Displays of emotions by its citizens, unless they are positively directed at Big Brother, are restricted.
Fear of losing loyalty to the government.
Furthermore, members that express individualism, without the Party's consent, are 're-eduucated' to love and obey Big Brother.
In this quote, Winston explains the lack of individuality and the Party's ability to manipulate the personality of its members that exists within the nation. Party members are made to feel insignificant to the cause and ideology of Big Brother, as their opinions and actions have little power to change the current state of affairs. The manipulation of emotions and sense of self, illustrates the theme of control present in the novel.
"The terrible thing that the Party had done was to persuade you that mere impulses, mere feelings, were of no account, while at the same time robbing you of all power over the material world. When once you were in the grip of the Party, what you felt or did not feel, what you did or refrained from doing, made literally no difference." (Orwell, 172)
This demonstrates the Party's control of language in order to limit the thoughts of the people and the possibility of expressing unconventional ideas. With the lack of words to express beliefs and emotions, the Party has successfully controlled the knowledge and thought capacity of its members, thereby eliminating the possible existence of thoughtcrime.
"Don't you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to exress it.
... Every year fewer an fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller." (Orwell, 54)
Party exerts control over the people through the manipulation and constant change of language
The formation of a newly developed language called Newspeak.
Reduce the size of the English vocabulry
Restrict the amount of words containing the same meaning.
Developed as a means of reducing thoughtcrime.
O'Brien, the antagonist of the novel, demonstrates the capabilities of deception within appearances.
Believed that he is a part of a rebel organization, despite his standing within the Party
Revealed to be working with the Thought Police, in a 7 year attempt to arrest Winston Smith of thoughtcrime.
"O'Brien was a large, burly man with a thick neck and a coarse, humorous, brutal face.
... He had a trick of re-settling his spectacles on his nose which was curiously disarming - in some indefinable way, curiously civilised. it was a gesture in which, if anyone had still thought in such terms, might have recalled an eighteenth-century nobleman offering his snuff-box." (Orwell, 12)
Born in a fairly wealthy family
Father--> Opium Department
Mother tried getting him to the public school education but couldn't afford
Blair went to Eton College but dropped out
Joined the Imperial Police in October 1922 but left in 1927 after contracting dengue fever
Moved back to London then to Paris in 1928
In Paris, he got sick in February 1929
In the year 1933, he taught at Frays College and then left again to work in Hampstead and Wigan Pier
Married to Eileen O'Shaughnessy on June 9, 1936
After being married, he decided to go to Spain to help in the Civil war but was injured by a sniper bullet to the throat
In the outbreak of World War 2, he began writing
which was published in August 17,1945
In the next several years, he began writing
which was publish in 1949
Died on January 16, 1950
-Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech
-Never use a long word where a short one will do
-If it is possible to cut a word out, cut it
-Never use the passive where you can use the active
-Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English Equivalent
-Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous
Sentences short and sweet--> Conversations with other characters
Words are simple to understand--> Newspeak
Epistemology-->Censorship of knowledge
Ethics-->Right and wrong in society
Transcendentalist-->Big Brother is god
Mr Charrington's Store
“So long as they were actually in this room, they both felt, no harm could come to them. Getting there was difficult and dangerous, but the room itself was sanctuary.” (158)
Located inside the Ministry of Love
Point of View
Third person limited
Told from the perspective of Winston
Winston's misconception of O'Brien is illustrated, as he believes that O'Brien is noble and humorous. However, this is false, as O'Brien is shown to be sadistic and evil during his torture session and rehabilitation of Winston's mind.
Mr. Charrington also exemplifies the theme of deceptionas
Pretends to be a shopkeeper within the Prole District, the working class of Oceania
Sold Winston's first diary to him.
Revealed to be a spy for the Thought Police
"He was a man of perhaps sixty, frail and bowed, with a long, benevolent nose, and mild eyes distorted by thick spectacles.
... HIs voice was soft, as though faded, and his accent less debased than that of the majority of proles." (Orwell, 98)
The quotes demonstrate the change of appearance that is evident in Mr. Charrington's physique. Winston had been deceived by Mr. Charrington, thinking that he is a frail old man; whilst he is actually a spy for the Thought Police.
Mr. Charrington was still wearing his old velvet jackey, but his hair, which had been almost white, had turned black. Also he was not wearing his spectacles.
... The black eyebrows were less bushy, the wrinkles were gone, the whole lines of the face seemed to have altered; even the nose seemed shorter. (Orwell, 233)
The Ministries within the Party are not truly what they seem. The theme of deception is exemplified by each Ministries actions to perform their duties
"The Ministry of Truth, which concerned itself with news, entertainment, education and the fine arts. The Ministry of Peace, which concerned itself with war. The Ministry of Love, which maintained law and order. And the Ministry of Plenty, which was responsible for economic affairs." (Orwell, 6)
The theme of deception is illustrated as the actions of the Ministries in achieving their duties highly contradict their supposed roles in society. The Ministry of Truth falsifies documents and history to allow the Party to control the present, past and future. The Ministry of Peace purposely wages war against all foreign nations. The Ministry of Plenty creates economic shortages to control the economy. The Ministry of Love utilizes harsh torture devices to re-condition or execute the Party memebers.
Comparison to BNW
All are dystopias. All deal with the manipulation or distortion of reality. In 1984 and BNW, much more subtly in BNW, reality is distorted by the state for political purposes. In both novels, reality is inherently unreliable - the story often centers around the protagonist discovering that he is someone or something entirely different from what he believed. Also what it means to be human with the battles between reality and truth. In BNW, those living on the Reservation are seen as not really human, and in 1984, one character states directly that the proles aren't human. within bothe novels, the ending was unexpected and both proganists had died.
Nature Of Conflict
Man vs. Society
Man vs. Technology
Man vs. Man
Man vs. Conscious
In 1984, Winston Smith, the protagonist of the novel, lives in Airstrip One; capital of the country Oceania. The world is divided into three countries that conquer the entire globe: Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia. Oceania is a totalitarian society led by the ideals of Big Brother; which watches the behavior of its citizens, even their thoughts. Winston is disgusted with his oppressed life and secretly longs to join the fabled Brotherhood, a supposed group of underground rebels intent on overthrowing the government. Winston meets Julia and they secretly fall in love and have an affair, something that is considered a crime. In an attempt to rebel against the Party, Winston requests O'Brien, a high-ranking inner Part member to join the Brotherhood; under the impression that O'Brein is a rebel. As Julia detests the Party as well, she and Winston joined the organization together. However, O’Brian is actually a faithful member of the Inner-Party and has been plotting teh arrest of Winston for seven years. Upon their arrest, Winston and Julia are sent to the Ministry of Love, a sort of rehabilitation center for criminals accused of thoughtcrime. There, separated from Julia, Winston is tortured until his beliefs coincided with those of the Party. Winston denounces everything he once believed, even his love for Julia, and was released back into the public where he wastes his days at the Chestnut Tree drinking gin.
Exposition: As the novel opens, Winston Smith, a member of the Outer Party from Oceania, feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his criminal thoughts.
Rising Action: Winston works in the Ministry of Truth. He alters historical records to fit the needs of the Party. He is troubled by the Party’s control of history: the Party claims that Oceania has always been allied with Eastasia in a war against Eurasia, but Winston seems to recall a time when this was not true. The Party also claims that Emmanuel Goldstein, the alleged leader of the Brotherhood, is the most dangerous man alive, but this does not seem plausible to Winston, as his hatred for the Party grows more and more intense. At last, he receives the message that he has been waiting for: O’Brien wants to see him and he is recruited into the Brotherhood.
Climax: The arrest of Winston and Julia on the charges of thoughtcrime.
Falling Action: Winston’s time in the café following his release from prison, including the memory of his meeting with Julia at the end of Book Three.
Resolution: Winston’s spirit is broken. Winston is released to the outside world. He meets Julia, but no longer feels anything for her. He has accepted the Party entirely and has learned to love Big Brother.
: The idea of holding two contradictory ideas and accepting them simultaneously
: The act of commiting a crime by thought
: The enjoyment of being solitary, being by oneself
: Someone who is 'vaporized' and erased from existence
Irony-Ministries, Winston working at the Ministry of Truth, Slogans, Idea of Sex
Style: Sentences are direct and aren't "decorated"
The Red-Armed Prole Woman
Both Winston and Julia see this women as a symbol of freedom and fertility. Party members are forbidden from personal expression. However, her singing represents rebellion against the Party's ideals. Furthermore, her ability to conceive without Party intervention gives hope to raising free-minded indviduals.
1.Dark- Throughout the book, there's oppression/ The conditions of life
2. Depressing- Restrictions
3. Fright-Constant monitoring, rumors, threats
Room 101 is different for everyone. Inside Room 101 is every person's greatest fear and for everyone their greatest fear is very different.The point of Room 101 is to ensure the final stage of reintegration, acceptance. It symbolizes fear and foreshadows betrayal, as a result of torture.
Orwell loved Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift (an Anglo-Irish satirist), Henry Fielding (English humour and satirical writer), Charles Dickens, Charles Reade(Novelist), and Flaubert (a well-known French writer) and many more that include James Joyce, T.S. Elliot and D.H. Lawrence but most of all, Somerset Maugham who was a short story writer and a novelist.
Meaning behind the book
In our society today, it's very similar
-Government and NSA
-Government tells you facts that may or may not be true
-Try to trust the government