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Female Reproductive System
Transcript of Female Reproductive System
What is the female reproductive system?
The mammary gland is a gland located in the breasts of females that is responsible for lactation, or the production of milk.
During pregnancy, the hormones progesterone and prolactin are released.
The progesterone interferes with prolactin, preventing the mammary glands from lactating. During this time, small amounts of a pre-milk substance called colostrum are produced.
This liquid is rich in antibodies and nutrients to sustain an infant during the first few days of life. After childbirth, progesterone levels decrease and the levels of prolactin remain raised. This signals the mammary glands to begin lactating. Each time a baby is breastfed the milk is emptied from the breast. Immediately afterward, the mammary glands are signaled to continue producing milk.
As a woman approaches menopause, the time when menstruation stops, the tissues of the ductile system become fibrous and degenerate. This causes involution, or shrinkage, of the mammary gland, and thereafter the gland loses the ability to produce milk.
Cancerous cells from breast tumors often spread to other areas of the body through the lymphatic system.
When a female develpps breast cancer sometimes they go through a procedure called Mastectomy.
Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
A mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer.
1. Small organ, made of all muscle or myometrium, with a small cavity
2. Composed of upper portion (body), rounded area (fundus), and lower cervix.
3. Located in Pelvic Cavity (during pregnancy to the abdominal cavity)
4. Three Processes: Menstruation, Pregnancy, Labor
5. Hysterectomy (surgical removal of uterus) Abdominal, Vaginal, Total
Fallopian tube: One of the two Fallopian tubes that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus (the womb). The Fallopian tubes have small hair-like projections called cilia on the cells of the lining. These tubal cilia are essential to the movement of the egg through the tube into the uterus. If the tubal cilia are damaged by infection, the egg may not get 'pushed along' normally but may stay in the tube.
Infection can also cause partial or complete blockage of the tube with scar tissue, physically preventing the egg from getting to the uterus.
Any process (such as infection, endometriosis, tumors, or scar tissue in the pelvis (pelvic adhesions) that cause twisting or chinking of the tube) that damages the Fallopian tube or narrows its diameter increases the chance of an ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy developing in the Fallopian tube or another abnormal location outside the uterus
1. The ovary is a female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced.
2. The ovaries are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus.
3. Each ovary is the size and shape of an almond.
4. In addition to producing ova, the ovaries also have the distinction of being part of the endocrine system because they secrete hormones- primarily estrogen and progesterone- that are vital to normal reproductive development and fertility.
5. One major disease is Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) it account for a majority of all ovarian cancers.
6. EOC is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissue covering the ovary or lining fallopian tube or peritoneum.
7. Treatments include: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
- Surgery: To determine whether the cancer has spread, the surgeon will remove lymph nodes, tissue samples, and fluid from the abdomen for testing. If, during the surgery, it is clear that the cancer has spread, the surgeon will remove as much of the cancer as possible.
- Chemotherapy: Usage of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide.
- Radiation Therapy: Use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells.
The female condom is made of soft plastic and protects against STDs. It is inserted deep into the vagina,over the cervix. The female condom is very different from the male condom because in the female condom it can be put into place up to eight hours before sex. The male condom is better than the female condom because it offers more protection both against STDsand pregnancy so if you and your male partner arent in a long-term relationship, female condoms are not a perfect substitute.
Patch (Ortho Evra)
You can place the hormone-relasing patch on your arm, buttock, or abdomen, and rest easy for one week. If you're at risk for blood clots, you might want to find a different method. The patch delivers 60% more estrogen than a low-dose pill, so you're at an increased risk for dangerous blood clots.
Implant (Implanon, Norplant)
Is about the size of a matchstick, the implant is placed under the skin on your upper arm.
Implants last for three years and can cost up to $800. The implant may not work as well for women taking St. John's work, or women who are overweight.
Sterilization (essure, tubal ligation)
Women can undergo either tubal ligation, a surgical procedure that blocks the fallopian tubes from carrying eggs to the uterus, or tubal implants (Essure), a nonsurgical technique in which a small coil is inserted into the fallopian tubes.
Emergency Contraception (Copper T IUD, Next Choice, Plan B, Plan B One Step)
Emergency Contraception is a backup for regular birth control. Plan B contains a higher dose of the same synthetic hormones found in the combination pill. It works best if taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex, but may work up to five days later. There's also the copper T IUD, which a doctor can insert into your uterus five to seven days after unprotected sex.
This birth control mainstay is still 99% effective against pregnancy when taken around the same time every day. It's also known for easing hot flashes and restoring regular periods.
Known as the mini pill, progestin-only meds don't contain estrogen. They're safer for smokers, diabetics, and heart disease patients, as well as those at risk for blood clots. They also won't reduce the milk supply for women who are breast-feeding.
Extended- cycle pill
These pills prevent pregnancy and allow you to have a period only every three months. (Note: Lybrel stops your period for a year, but you must take a pill every day, year-round.)
The ring is made of flexible plastic and delivers estrogen and progestin, just like the combination pill. You place the ring in your vagina for three weeks, and then remove it for one week so that you have a regular period.
Made of rubber and shaped like a dome, a diaphragm prevents sperm from fertilizing an egg. It covers the cervix and must always be used with a spermicide. Women must be fitted for a diaphragm in their doctor's office.
ParaGard is a surgically implanted copper device that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. Mirena, also surgically implanted, works by releasing hormones. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are more than 99% effective and good for 10 years.
* The vagina ia an elastic muscular tube that connects to the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and the exterior of the body.
* It is located in the pelvic body cavity
*It measures around 3 inches
* The vagina can expand and contract during sexual and childbirth.
The vagina can have infections and diseases like
*Herpes gonorrhea, Chlamidia, Trichomoniasis, Human papillomavirus, HIV/AIDS, candidal vulvovaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginismus,vaginal obstruction, vaginal hypoplasia, lumps, persistent genital arousal disorder, vulvodynia, vaginal prolapse, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, air embolism.
Most infections and diseases are characterized by discharge or abnormalities that can be detected by a specialist. A pap smear can say the difference from being healthy or having any of the symptoms just mentioned.
by : Carlos Luna, Erica Hinojosa, Vanessa Rodriguez, Marco Flores, Yadira Garcia, Esmeralda Balderas, Vianaca Martinez, Lindsey Pena