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Communication

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Alvin Raditya

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Communication

Effective Communication
Katelyn Bowers
Rebecca Ford
Jason Juta
Alvin Raditya

Objective
“To help identify key factors that influence communication”

What is communication?
“Communication is a complex, ongoing, dynamic process in which the participants simultaneously create shared meaning in an interaction.” (Sullivan & Decker, 2009, p. 122).

How do we communicate?
It can be oral or written and depends on the level of intimacy
In person
On telephone
Voice mail
Email, instant messaging, or by texting
Memos, faxes, and written mail
Verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication
Or metacommunications is more powerful than the word one speaks and can distort the meaning of spoken words (Sullivan, 2010)
When a verbal message is incongruent with the nonverbal message, the recipient has difficulty interpreting the intended meaning =
Intrasender Conflict
For example
A manager tells the staff to come in and talk to her but she continues to type on her keyboard

Direction of communication
Effective Listening
Benefits?
Productivity is increased due to listening skills. They understand their assignments better and rapport is better between manager and follower
Is essential for the open door policy to take place
Improves office politics and helps in policy making, and problem solving
Steps to become an effective listener
Stop talking: it is impossible to speak and listen at the same time.
Put the speaker at ease: this allows them to organize their thoughts and convey what they feel
Show desire to listen: have a positive attitude and show the metacommunication skills
Remove distractions: give the speaker your full attention
Empathize with the speaker: try to understand where the speaker is coming from
Be patient: be tolerant of what the speaker is saying, allow the speaker to finish talking
Hold temper: angry minds do not communicate
Refrain from being argumentative: this impedes the natural flow of communication
Ask questions to extract more: facilitates understanding
Avoid talking: allows the listener to concentrate and understand
Eye contact: shows interest and encourages the speaker to continue
Downward communication
for example: manager to staff
Upward communication
for example: staff to manager
Lateral communication
for example: staff nurse to another staff nurse
Diagonal communication
for example: between individual or department at different hierarchical level
Differences in communication
Gender specific
Interrupt more
Talk more, longer, louder, and faster
Disagree more
Focus on the issue more than the person
Boast accomplishments
Use banter to avoid a one-down position
Neutral:
Listen to objections and suggestions
Listen without feeling responsible
Suspend judgment until information is in
Explain your reasons
Not yell
Gender specific:
Wait to be noticed
Use qualifiers
Use questions in place of statements
Relate personal experiences
Promote consensus
Withdraw from conflict
Neutral
Start your message clearly and concisely
Solve problems without personalizing them
Say what you want without hinting
Eliminate unsure words and nonwords
Not cry
Gender differences
Generational and cultural differences
Generational Differences
Traditional (1922-1945)
Baby Boomers (1946-1964)
Generation X (1965-1979)
Generation Y (1980-2000)
Cultural Differences
Factors
Body movement, gestures, tone, and spatial orientation
Understanding cultural heritages of employees and learning to interpret cultural messages is essential for effective communication with staff from diverse backgrounds
Achieving Cultural Competence
Am I aware of any cultural biases or prejudices I may have?
Do I have an understanding of the current world views of different cultural groups?
Do I take the initiative to interact with individuals who are different from me?
Do I want to become culturally competent

Enhance Cultural Understanding
Literature and history of culture
Open, honest, respectful communication
Exploring behaviors
Understanding the existence of subcultures
Organizational differences
Assessment
What rules affect communication in the organization?
Who has access to what information? Is info withheld? Is it shared widely
What modes of communication are used for which messages? Are they used appropriately?
How clear are the messages? Or are the often distorted?
Does everyone receive the same information?
Do you receive too much info? Not enough?
How effective is the message?
Employee
Know the Context of the Instruction
Get Positive Attention
Give Clear, Concise Instruction
Verify through Feedback
Provide Follow up Communication
Role of communication in leadership
Administrator
Organized and Prepared for Clarity
Listen Objectively
Managing Upward is Critical
Understand the Supervisors Position
Learn how they Respond to Stress
Choose the Right Time
Spoken or Written Form?
If the Supervisor says no:
Negative Inquiry
Fogging
Negative Assertion
Confrontation
Persistence and Repetition
Be Prepared to Compromise
Coworkers
Relationships can Vary
Always Remain on a Professional Level
Medical staff
Superior vs. Subordinate
Physician-Nurse relationship
Difference of Medical Staff
Patients and family
Principle Customers of the Organization
Unfamiliarity of Medical Jargon
Maintain Privacy
Find Interpreters and Understanding
Recognize Cultural Differences
School Nursing Communication
Abilities of School Nurses to Consult and Interact with Community Physicians
Satisfaction with School Health Services
Relied on Physician Consulting
Communication and Leadership are essential In proper School Nursing
Bob
Sally
Strategies for communicating with difficult people
Put physical and/or psychological distance from the difficult person
Be empathethic
Ask extensional questions
Use physical movement
Try Humor
Enhancing your communication skills
Know your relationship
Craft your message and use medium based on your relationship
Check timing
Deliver, attend, and respond to verbal or written response appropriately
Evaluate the communication process
Communicating with difficult people
References
Forrest, C. (2012). Working with 'difficult' patients. Primary Health Care, 22(8), 20-22.
Jack, B., O'Brien, M., Kirton, J., Marley, K., Whelan, A., Baldry, C., & Groves, K.
(2013). Enhancing communication with distressed patients, families and colleagues: The value of the simple skills secrets model of communication for the nursing and healthcare workforce. Nurse Education Today, 58(2), 101-104. doi:10.1093/sw/swt008
Mannahan, C. (2010). Different worlds: A cultural perspective on nurse physician
communication. Nurse Clinic of North America, 45(1), 71-79. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxytu.researchport.umd.edu/science/article/pii/S0 029646509000887
Pomeroy, E. C., & Nonaka, A. (2013). Language and social work: Are we really communicating effectively. Social Work, 58(2), 101-104.
doi:10.1093/sw/swt008
Rane, D. B. (2011). Good listening skills make efficient business sense. IUP Journal of
Soft Skills, 5(4), 43-51.
Sullivan, E. (2013). Communicating effectively. In M. Namsivayam (Ed.), Effective
leadership and management in nursing (8th ed., pp. 117-130). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Volkman, J., & Hillemeier, M. (2008). School nurse communication effectiveness with
physicians and satisfaction with school health services. The Journal of School Nursing, 24(5), 310-318. doi: 10.1177/1059840508323199

Knowing the different modes of communication used by men and women is important for the nurse manager. Which of the following is a difference in communication in unpleasant situations.
A. Women talk longer and faster, men disclose more.
B. Men tend to talk more and women withdraw.
C. Women disagree more.
D. Men tend to use tag questions.

The staff of a medical-surgical unit is in conflict with the occupational therapy department. What type of communication will be used to discuss the problems?
A. Downward communication
B. Lateral communication
C. Upward communication
D. Distorted communication

Which of the following are important techniques when giving directions to subordinates? Select all that apply.
A. Get positive attention.
B. Verify feedback.
C. Know the context of the instructions.
D. Use lateral communication.
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