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Transcript of Hairstyling
Why Study Hairstyling?
Wet Hairstyling Basics
Thermal Hair Straightening
Styling Long Hair
The Artistry of Hairstyling
Demonstrate finger waving, pin curling, roller setting and hair wrapping.
Demonstrate various blow-dry styling techniques.
Demonstrate the proper use of thermal irons.
Demonstrate various thermal iron manipulations and explain how they are used.
Describe the three types of hair pressing.
Demonstrate the procedures for soft pressing and hard pressing.
Demonstrate three basic techniques of styling long hair.
The art of hairstyling or dressing the hair has always changed in direct relation to the fashion, art and life of the times.
The client consultation is always the first step in the hairstyling process. A picture is worth a thousand words. Create design by taking into consideration face shape, hair type and lifestyle.
Often you will be called upon as a creative problem solver. Now you are being asked to fix the problem. If you can come up with an alternative style,one that is both flattering and easy to manage, she/he may become one of your most loyal customers.
Finger waving is the process of shaping and directing the hair into an S pattern through the use of the fingers, combs and waving lotion.
Finger waving was all the rage in the 1920's and 1930's.
From Madonna to Tyra Banks, well-known celebrities have embraced the elegance of the finger wave style for the red carpet and other special, highly televised and photographed events.
In addition to fashions, finger waving teaches you the technique of moving and directing hair. It also provides training in molding hair to the curved surface of the thead and is an excellent introduction to hairstyling.
Why Study Hairstyling?
Hairstyling is an important, foundational skill that allows the professional to articulate creativity and deliver a specific outcome desired by the client
Clients rely on you to teach them about their hair and how to style it so they can have a variety of options based on their lifestyle and fashion needs. YOU are the expert!!
The client looks to you for that special style desired for that special day.
Hairstyling skills will enable you to help clients to be as contemporary as they would like to be, allowing them to keep up with the trends.
1920's & 1930's
wash and wear hair
It is our professional responsibility to educate clients about at-home maintenance and styling options for their hair.
Wet Hairstyling Basics
Wet hairstying tools include the following:
Clips (duckbill, sectioning, finger waving, double prong and single prong)
Pins (bobby pins and hairpins)
Clamps (sectioning clamps)
Finger Waving Lotion
Waving lotion is a type of hair gel that makes the hair pliable enough to keep it in place during the finger waving procedure
. Made from karaya (kuh-Ry-uh) gum, taken from trees found in Africa and India.
A good waving lotion is harmless to the hair and does not flake when it dries. Be sure not to use too much, because the hair will be too wet and the lotion will drip. Liquid styling gels are also commonly used and in many cases have replaced the traditional karaya gum products.
In vertical finger waves the ridges and waves run up and down the head. Horizontal finger waves are sideways and parallel around the head. The procedure is the same for both.
Pin curls serve as the basis for patterns, lines, waves, curls and rolls that are used in a wide range of hairstyles.
You can use them on all types of hair, including, straight, permanent waved or natural curly hair.
Pin curls work the best when the hair is layered and smoothly wound. This makes springy and long-lasting curls with good direction and definition.
Parts of a Pin Curl
Pin curls are made up of three principle parts; base, stem and circle.
is the stationary (non-moving) foundation of the curl, which is the area closest to the scalp, the panel of hair on which the roller is placed.
is the section of the pin curl between the base and the first arc (turn) of the circle that gives the curl its direction and movement, the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller.
The circle is the part of the curl that forms a complete circle and ultimately the wave. The size of the circle determines the width of the wave and its strength.
Mobility of a Curl
The stem determines the amount of mobility, or movement, in a section of hair. Curl mobility is classified as: no stem, half stem and full stem.
curl is placed directly on the base of the curl. It produces a tight, firm, long-lasting curl and allows minimum mobility.
The half-stem curl permits medium movement; the curl (circle) is placed half off the base. It gives good control to the hair.
allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placed completely off the base.
The base may be a square, triangular, half moon or rectangular section
, depending on the area of the head in which the full-stem curls are used. Used to give the hair a strong, definite direction.
Shaping for Pin Curl Placements
is a section of hair that is molded in a circular movement in preparation for the formation of curls. Shapings are either open- or closed-end.
Always begin a pin curl at the open end, or convex side of a shaping.
Open- and Closed-Center Curls
produce even, smooth waves and uniform curls.
produce waves that get smaller toward the end.
Curl and Stem Direction
Curls may be turned toward the face, away from the face, upward, downward or diagonally. The finished result will be determined by the stem's direction.
The term clockwise curls and counter clockwise curls are used to describe the direction of pin curls.
Pin Curl Bases of Foundations
The most commonly shaped base for pin curls is the arc base (half moon or C-shaped). Others are rectangular, triangular or square.
To avoid splits in the finished style, you must use care when selecting and forming the curl base. When the sections of hair are as close to equal as possible, you will get curls that are similar to one another. Each curl must lie flat and smooth on its base. If it is too far off the base, the curl will lie loose away from the scalp. The shape of the base does not affect the finished curl.
Rectangular base pin curls are usually recommended at the side front hairline for a smooth, up-swept effect.
Triangular base pin curls are recommended along the front or facial hairline to prevent breaks or splits in the finished hairstyle.
Arc base pin curls also known as half-moon or C-shaped base curls
, are carved out of a shaping.
Square base pin curls are suitable for curly hairstyles without much volume or lift. Can be used on any area of the head and will comb out with lasting results.
Pin Curl Techniques
Various methods are used to make pin curls.
One important technique is called
ribboning which involves forcing the hair between the thumb and the back of the comb to create tension.
Carved or Sculptured Curls
Pin curls sliced from a shaping and formed without lifting the hair from the head are referred to as carved curls, also known as
Designing with Pin Curls
To create a wave, use 2 rows of pin curls. Set one row clockwise and the next counter clockwise.
are pin curls place immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave.
are 2 rows of ridge curls, usually on the side of the head.
have a large center openings and are fastened to the head in a standing position on a rectangular base. Similar effect to that of a roller or stand up pin curl, without as much tension.
Creating Volume with Pin Curls
Two types of pin curls that are particularly effective for adding volume are:
Cascade Curls, also known as stand-up curls, are used to create height in the design.
Fastened in a standing position to allow hair to flow upward and then downward. The size of the curl determines the amount of height in the comb out.
Rollers are used to create many of the same effects as stand-up pin curls.
Rollers have the following advantages over pin curls:
Rollers are faster because they hold as much hair as 2-4 pin curls.
The hair is wrapped around the roller with tension, which gives stronger and longer-lasting set.
Rollers come in a variety of shapes, widths and sizes, which broadens the creative possibilities for any style.
Parts of a Roller Curl
It is important that you can identify the 3 parts of a roller curl.
The base is the panel of hair on which the roller is placed.
The base should be the same width and length as the roller. The type of base affects the volume.
The stem is the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller. The stem gives the hair direction and mobility.
The curl, also known as the circle, is the hair that is wrapped around the roller. It determines the size of the wave or curl.
Choosing Your Roller Size
The relationship between the length of the hair and the size of the roller will determine whether the result will be a C shape, wave or curl. These 3 shapes are created as follows:
1 complete turn around the roller will create a C shape curl.
2 complete turns will create a wave.
2 1/2 turns will create a curl.
fingerwaves and pin curls
finger waving clips
double prong and single prong clips
The amount of volume that is achieved depends on the size of the roller an how it sits on its base. General rule of thumb is that the larger the roller, the greater the volume. There are 3 kinds of bases:
On Base also known as full base. For volume. Rollers sits directly on its base.
Half base. Medium volume, the roller sits halfway on its base and halfway behind its base.
Off base. For the least volume, the roller sits completely off the base.
The placement of rollers on the head usually follows the movement of the finished style. To reduce volume, bringing movement closer to the head, use indentation curl placement.
Indentation is the point where curls of the opposite direction meet, forming a recessed area.
Indentation can be used using rollers, curling irons or a round brush.
Hot Rollers and Velcro Rollers
Hot rollers are to be used only on dry hair. They are heated either electrically or by steam, and they are a great time saver in the salon. Follow same setting patterns as with wet setting, but allow the hot rollers to stay on the hair for about 10 minutes.
Velcro rollers are not allowed by the state board of some states because they are difficult to clean and disinfect properly. Like hot rollers,
Velcro Rollers are used only on dry hair.
Using them on wet hair wil snag and pull the hair. Velcro rollers need to stay in the hair for only 5 to 10 minutes, depending on how much set you want in the hair.
A good set leads to a good comb out. For successful finishes, learn how to shape and mold the hair, and the practice fast, simple, and effective methods for comb outs.
Backcombing and Back-brushing Techniques
Backcombing and Back-Brushing are the best ways to lift and increase volume, as well as to remove indentations caused by roller setting.
Backcombing also known as teasing, ratting, matting or French lacing, involves combing small sections of hair from the ends towards the scalp, causing shorter hair tomat at the scalp and form a cushion or base.
Back-brushing also known as ruffing, is used to build a soft cushion or to mesh two or more curl patterns together for a uniform and smooth comb out.
press comb down
create a cushion
repeat for volume
Hair wrapping is a technique used to keep curly hair smooth and straight while retaining a beautiful shape.
Curly hair can be wrapped around the head to give it a smooth, rounded contour, resulting in an effect that is similar to that attained with rollers. When wrapping, very little volume is attained because the hair at the scalp is not lifted. If height is desired you can place large rollers at the crown, with the remainder of the hair wrapped around the head.
Wrapping can be done on wet or dry hair.
On curly hair, wet wrapping creates a smooth, sleek look.
When working with very curly hair, press it first, then do a dry hair wrapping.
TIP -- A hood dryer is best used for any kind of wet set--finger waves, pin curls or rollers. A wet set will last longer than a blown dry style for many people. Choose the best technique in order to achieve the look you want, given the styling techniques you have used.
Blow-dry styling is the technique of drying and styling damp hair in one operation,
and it has revolutionized the hairstyling world. Today women desire hairstyles that require the least possible time and effort to maintain. The selection of styling tools, techniques and products must relate to the client's lifestyle. As the stylist YOU are responsible for guiding and educating the client through this process. Remember, the client's first impression of the haircut you have provided will be determined by the quality of the blow-dry.
Tools for Blow-drying
The following are the basic tools used for blow-drying techniques:
The blow-dryer. An electrical appliance designed for drying and styling hair. Some blow-dryers have a cooling button which is used to help set the hair.
The blow-dryers nozzle attachment, or concentrator, is a directional feature that creates a concentrated stream of air.
diffuser is an attachment that causes the air to flow more softly and helps accentuate or keep textural definition.
TIP -- Always keep your blowdryer as safe and effective a possible, always make sure that it is perfectly clean and free of dirt, oil and hair before use. The air intake at the back must also be kept clear at
Combs and Picks
Combs come in a variety of izes and shapes to adapt to many styling options. Keep in mind, teeth that are closely spaced remove definition from the curl and create a smooth surface; wide spaced teeth shape larger sections of hair for a more textured surface. Combs with a pick at the end lift the hair away from the head.
When choosing a styling brush, take into account the texture, length and styling needs of the hair that you are working with. Brushes, also, come in many shapes, sizes and materials. Here are a few:
classic styling brush is a half-round, rubber based brush.
Usually have 7 -9 rows of round tipped nylon bristles. A classic styling brush
is perfect for blow-drying precision haircuts, where little volume is desired.
Most are heat resistant, antistatic and ideal for smoothing and untangling all types of hair.
, with their large, flat bases, are
well suited for mid-length to longer-length hair. Some have ball-tipped nylon pins and staggered pin patterns that help keep the hair from snagging.
Grooming brushes are generally oval, with a mixture of boar and nylon bristles.
Boar bristles help distribute the scalp oils giving hair a shiny appearance. Nylon bristles help stimulate scalp circulation. Great for combing out up-dos.
, with there ventilated design,
are used to speed up the blow-drying process
. Great for fine hair and adding lift at the scalp.
Round brushes come in a variety of diameters. Clients hair should be long enough to wrap twice around the brush. Often have natural bristles, but sometimes are mixed with nylon bristles for a better grip. Some have metal cylinders so that the heat from the blow-dryer is transferred to the metal creating a stronger curl. Always use the cooling button on the blow-dryer before releasing the section to set the hair into the new shape.
teasing brush is a thin, nylon styling brush that has a tail for sectioning, along with a narrow row of bristles.
Perfect for backcombing the hair and the sides of the bristles are ideal for smoothing it into a desired style.
Used to hold the hair in place. It is important to keep the wet hair from sitting on the dry hair. Particularly important when drying long hair.
Styling products can be thought of as liquid tools. They give a style more hold, and they can be used to either increase or decrease the amount of curl. Also to add shine. Generally the enhance a style when used properly.
As a stylist carefully consider your options before applying product to your client's hair. You must consider the type of hair---fine, medium, coarse, straight or curly---when deciding on a product. Also consider environmental conditions, dryness, humidity, wind, sun.
Styling products range from a light hold to a very firm hold.
Types of Styling Products
Foam, also known as mousse, is a light, airy, whipped styling product that resembles shaving foam.
It builds moderate body and volume into the hair.
Gel is a thickened styling preparation that comes in a tube or bottle. Gels create the strongest control. Firm hold gel formulations have a high resin content and can overwhelm fine hair.
Liquid gels, also known as texturizers
, are similar to firm hold gels except
they are lighter and less viscous
(more liquid) in form. They allow for easy styling, defining and molding.
Straightening gel is applied to damp hair and blown dry to create smooth straight looks that provide the most hold.
Volumizers, when sprayed at the base of fine, wet hair at the base and blown dry add volume.
Pomade, also known as wax, adds considerable weight to the hair by causing strands to join together, showing separation in the hair.
Silicone adds gloss and sheen to the hair while creating textural definition
Hair Spray, also known as finishing spray, is applied in the form of a mist to hold a style in position.
It is the most widely used hairstyling product.
Available in both aerosol and pump containers, and in a variety oof holding strengths, it is useful for all hair types.
Thermal waving and curling, also known as Marcel waving
are methods of waving and curling straight or pressed dry hair using thermal irons and special manipulative techniques. They can be either electrical or stove heated.
Thermal irons are implements made of quality steel that are used to curl dry hair. They provide an even heat that is completely controlled by the stylist.
Nonelectrical thermal irons are favored by many stylists who cater to clients with excessively curly hair because of the larger range of barrels or rod sizes and higher heat capabilities.
They are heated in a specially designed electric or gas stove.
All thermal irons have four basic parts:
Flat irons have two hot plates ranging in size from 1/2 inch to 3 inches across.
Flat irons with straight edges are used to create smooth, straight styles, even on very curly hair
. Flat irons with beveled edges can be manipulated to bend or cup the ends.
The edge nearest the stylist is called the inner edge
; the one furthest from the stylist is the outer edge.
Testing Thermal Irons
Test a heated iron on a piece of tissue paper or a white cloth
. Hold for 5 seconds, it it scorches or turns brown, the iron is too hot. An overly hot iron can scorch the hair and might even discolor white hair. Remember that fine, lightened or badly damaged hair withstands less heat than normal hair.
Care of Thermal Irons
One way to remove dirt, oils and product residue is to dampen a towel or a rag and wipe down the barrel of the iron with a soapy solution containing a few drops of ammonia. Also they now sell curling iron cleaner in most supply stores.
Comb Used with Thermal Irons
should be about 7 inches long,
should be made of hard rubber or another nonflammable substance
and should have fine teeth to firmly hold the hair.
Manipulating Thermal Irons
The best way to practice manipulative techniques with thermal irons is by rolling the COLD iron in your hand, first forward and then backward. The rolling movement should be done without any sway or motion in the arm; only the fingers are used as you roll the handles in each direction.
There is no single correct temperature used for the iron when thermal curling or thermal waving the hair.
The temperature setting for an iron depends on the texture of the hair
, whether it is fine or coarse and whether it has been lightened or colored. As a rule,
coarse and grey hair can withstand more heat than fine or chemically treated hair.
Thermal Curling with Electric Thermal Irons
A modern thermal iron and a hard rubber comb are all you need to give your client curls. Thermal curling, which requires no setting gels or lotions, may be used to great advantage on the following hair types:
Straight hair. Eliminates the need for rollers and a long drying process.
Pressed hair. Can be curled without worry of it returning to its former extremely curly condition.
Wigs and hairpieces (human hair). Provides a quick and effective method for styling.
Curling Iron Manipulations
See page 438
Other Types of Curls
There are a number of other curls used for styling purposes. The
spiral curl is a method of curling the hair by winding a strand around the rod. It creates hanging curls suitable for medium to long hairstyles.
Also, end curls. The hair ends can be turned under or over and is done only on the ends of the hair. Can be done on all hair lengths.
Volume Thermal Iron Curls
Volume thermal iron curls are used to create volume or lift in a finished style. The degree of lift desired determines the type of volume curls to be used.
Volume-based curls provide maximum lift or volume, set very high on its base.
Full-base curls sit in the center of the base and provide a strong curl with full volume.
Hold hair at a 125* angle.
Half-base curls sit half on and half of the base and provide strong curl with moderate lift or volume.
Off-base curls are placed completely off their base and offer a curl option with only slight lift or volume.
Finishing a thermal curl set. For best results, clip each curl in place until the whole head has been curled and is ready for styling. Work up from the neckline and pushing waves into place as you progress over the entire head. If the hairstyle is to be finished with curls, do the bottom curls last.
Using Thermal Irons Safely
Guidelines for safe use of thermal irons:
Test the temperature of the iron on tissue paper or white cloth.
Use only hard rubber or nonflammable combs.
Do not use metal combs.
Always place comb between the iron and client's scalp.
See more on pg. 441
Thermal Hair Straightening (Hair Pressing)
When properly done,
hair pressing temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair by means of a heated iron or comb.
A pressing generally lasts until the hair is shampooed.
Hair pressing also prepares the hair for additional services, such as thermal curling and croquignole thermal curling (the 2-loop or figure 8 technique). A good hair pressing leaves the hair in a natural and lustrous condition and it is not harmful to the hair.
3 Types of Hair Pressing
Soft press, which
removes about 50 - 60 percent of the curl, is done by pressing the comb once on each side of the hair.
Medium press, which removes about 60 - 75 percent of the curl, and is done by applying the pressing comb once on each side of the hair, using slightly more pressure.
Hard press, which removes 100 percent of the curl is done by applying the thermal comb twice on each side of the hair. A hard press can also be done by first passing a hot thermal iron through the hair. This is called a double press.
Analysis of Hair and Scalp
Before you press a client's hair, you will need to analyze the condition of the hair and scalp.
In case of scalp skin disease, it is not the cosmetologist's job to diagnose the condition, but rather to advise the client to see a dermatologist.
Remember to check hair's porosity and elasticity. Good elasticity means the hair will stretch to about 50 percent of its original length before breaking. Porosity when normal, he hair will return to its natural wave pattern when it is wet or moistened.
Condition of hair
Condition of Scalp
Coarse, extremely curly hair requires more heat and pressure.
Medium curly hair usually creates no special problems and is what stylists usually deal with in salon.
Fine hair requires special care. Use less heat and pressure.
Wiry, curly hair
may be coarse,medium,fine and feels stiff and hard. This type of hair
is very resistant to hair pressing and requires more heat and pressure.
The condition of the client's scalp can be classified as :
normal - proceed with hair texture and elasticity analysis
tight - and if it is coarse, press with the direction of hair growth to avoid injury to the scalp.
flexible - remember to use enough tension to press the hair satisfactorily.
Be sure to record the results of your hair and scalp analysis, as well as all pressing treatments, on the client's intake form or service record card.
Effective conditioning treatments involve special cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing and scalp massage. Using a conditioning treatment usually results in better hair pressing.
A tight scalp can be made more flexible by the use of routine scalp massages and hair brushing.
The client also benefits by getting increased blood circulation to the scalp.
There are two types of pressing combs; regular and electric.
Both should be constructed of good quality stainless steel or brass.
The handle is usually wood because it does not absorb heat as much, however, some may be plastic(mainly on electric combs).
The space between the teeth of the comb varies with the size and style of the comb.
Closely spaced teeth provide a smooth press.
Pressing combs also vary in size. Shorter combs are used for shorter hair; longer combs for longer hair.
Tempering the Comb
It may be a good idea to temper a new brass pressing comb so that it will hold heat evenly along its entire length and provide consistent results. To temper a new pressing comb, heat the comb until it is extremely hot. Coat the comb in petroleum or pressing oil. Let it cool down naturally and then rinse under hot running water to remove the oil.
Tempering the pressing comb also allows you to burn off any polish the manufacturer may have used to coat the comb. If the polish is not burned off, the comb may stick to the hair, causing scorching and breakage.
Heating the Comb
Regular pressing combs may be designed as electrical appliances or to be heated in electric or gas stoves. When heating a pressing comb in a gas stove, point the teeth face-up and keep the handle away from the fire.
Always test temperature on a piece of light paper. If the paper becomes scorched, allow the comb to cool slightly before applying to the hair.
Electric pressing combs are available in two forms; one has an on/off switch and the other has a thermostat that indicates high or low degrees of heat.
Cleaning the Comb
The pressing comb will perform more efficiently if it is kept clean. Wipe the comb clean of loose hair, grease and dust before and after every client. Once those items are removed the intense heating of the comb will sterilize it.
With a stove-heated pressing comb(nonelectrical), remove the carbon by rubbing the outside surface and between the teeth with a fine steel-wool pad or fine sandpaper.
Then place the metal portion of the comb in a hot baking soda
solution for about one hour. Rinse and dry thoroughly. The metal will acquire a smooth and shiny surface.
Pressing Oil or Cream
Prepare the hair for a pressing treatment by first applying pressing oil or cream. Both offer the following benefits:
make hair softer
prepare and condition the hair for pressing
help protect hair from burning and scorching
help prevent hair breakage
condition the hair after pressing
add sheen to pressed hair
help hair stay pressed longer
- read reminders and hints for all pressing procedures and special considerations.
PG. 445 & 446
Styling Long Hair
An up-do is a hairstyle with the hair arranged up and off the shoulders and secured with implements such as hairpins, bobby pins and elastics. Usually requested for special occasions such as wedding, proms and evening events. A few classics are knot, twist and pleat. Once these are mastered any placement or combination of them can give a unique update to a classic look. When executing an up-do,
always inspect the shape
ou are building from every angle to make sure that it
is well balanced and well proportioned
A truly classic style, the knot,
also known as chignon.
Twist. This elegant, sleek look can go anywhere.
This traditional up-do is usually used for weddings and black-tie events and
is also known as Classic French Twist
. The pleat(which means folded in french) is much more severe and controlled than the basic twist, and more creativity can be used.
As always, consult with the client first to make sure you understand what she has in mind. If you are doing a pre-wedding consultation with a bride, ask the bride to bring her headpiece so that she can try several styles and see how the look. Take pics so she can decide which she likes best. Always suggest classic, timeless styles for brides and leave the latest trend for the bridesmaids. Keep a photo of the chosen style so that you can duplicate it for the big day.
The Artistry of Hairstyling
Hairstyling offers a cosmetologist a wonderful artistic outlet.
Styling trends change quickly. In order to offer your clients the latest looks, you may want to consider having a mannequin at home. This will enable you to practice creating the looks you see in magazines and to try out new styling ideas and techniques. Never stop learning!!!!
A hard press is only recommended when the results of a soft or medium press are not satisfactory.
Touch-ups are sometimes necessary when the hair becomes curly again due to perspiration, dampness, or other conditions. The process is the same as for the original pressing treatment, with the shampoo omitted.