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Copy of U.S. Imperialism (19th and 20th Centuries)
Transcript of Copy of U.S. Imperialism (19th and 20th Centuries)
Throughout the 19th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean
By 1880, many American leaders felt the U.S. should join European nations and establish colonies overseas
Thus began America’s foray into Imperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend control over weaker nations
--Commodore Matthew Perry negotiates a
treaty to open up Japan to trade with the U.S.
--Threatened tradition Japanese culture
U.S. takes possession of small islands in the Pacific
Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries
To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers pleaded for annexation
The U.S. knew the value of the Islands – they had built a naval base at Pearl Harbor in 1887
Led by Sanford Dole, American annexed Hawaii in 1898 and it formally became a state in 1959
In 1867, Secretary of State William Steward arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million
Some thought it was a silly idea and called it “Steward’s Icebox”
Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for 2 cents an acre Alaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil
America had long held an interest in Cuba
When Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against Spanish rule in the late 19th century, American sympathy went out to the Cuban people
After Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886, Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar
--After battling in Cuba, the Spanish-American War fighting moved to the Philippines (a Spanish colony)
--With the help of rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo, the U.S. defeated the Spanish and bought the Philippines for $20 mil.
--Later, the Filipinos fought the U.S. for independence
The U.S. Wins!
The Treaty of Paris
The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war”
The war lasted only 16 weeks
Cuba was now independent
U.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million
War in the Caribbean
A naval blockade of Cuba was followed by a land invasion highlighted by Roosevelt’s Rough Rider victory at San Juan Hill
Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony)
China was a vast potential market for American products
Weakened by war and foreign intervention, many European countries had colonized in China
In 1889, John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State, issued the Open Door Policy which outlined his plan for free trade among nations in China
By the early 20th century, many Americans understood the advantages of a canal through Panama
It would greatly reduce travel times for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
Big Stick Diplomacy
Using the military to achieve America's goals
"Chronic wrongdoing" necessitates the interference of an "international police power"
1) Desire for Military strength – Mahan advised strong navy
2) Thirst for new markets – to spur economy & trade
3) Belief in Cultural Superiority – a belief that Anglo-Saxons were superior
The U.S had to decide how to rule the new lands
Puerto Rico wanted their independence– but the U.S. had other plans
Puerto Rico was important to the U.S. strategically
The U.S. set up a civil government, full citizenship, and a bicameral system
The French had already unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through Panama
America first had to help Panama win their independence from Colombia – which it did
Construction of the Canal stands as one of the greatest engineering feats of all-time