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Social Capital and Health Promotion

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Pepijn van Hove

on 8 May 2012

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Transcript of Social Capital and Health Promotion

Social Capital
Health Promotion & Lecture: minor Health Promotion
13-12-2010 The value of the Social Capital concept for Health Promotion is not yet firmly established (Wakefield & Poland, 2004) Why this lecture? "The quality of the social life is the most powerful determinant of health" (R. Wilkinson, 1996). Misuse and abuse of definitions Common term in the world of HP. Being familiar with the concept of social capital is necessary (Wakefield and Poland, 2004). Health Promotion is all about participation, empowerment and social support (Green, 1990) Social support, social relations and community capacity. Social Capital. Theoretical framework What is capital? Cultural capital
Economic capital
Human capital
Social capital Capital is an investment of resources with an expected return in the marketplace (Nan Lin, 1983) Karl Marx (1818-1883) Marx (1818-1883) saw capital as a surplus
value which was created trough the process of
commodities, production and exchange (Nan
Lin 1983). According to Marx, Capital emerges
from social relations between capitalist and
laborers. In Marx’s time the capitalist had
resources which were adjusted by the laborers
to gain a surplus value. The laborers were paid
to do this by the capitalists. Every time a
resource underwent this process the value
would increase while the payment for the
laborers stayed the same. The laborers did not
gain any surplus value so they could never
accumulate any capital. The capitalists,
however, continued to accumulate capital. The
ideas of Marx resulted in a theory which is
called the classical theory: The Marxian View
on Capital (Nan Lin 2002). This theory is based
on inequality. Capital was a surplus value
generated from the capitalist’s investment in
the production and was captured by the
capitalist. The laborers didn’t got any richer. The Marxian View on Capital
Reduce inequalities > everybody (laborers) earns the same
Laborers did not gain any surplus value
Capital was a surplus value generated from the capitalist’s investment in the production and was captured by the capitalist. Communism Industrialism Human Capital After the industrial revolution work became
more complicated. The consequence was that
education was necessary for a lot of people to
do certain jobs. This created a new sort of
capital: human capital. This is called a Neo-
Capital Theory. The focus is not on the
production and exchange of commodities
anymore but the focus is on the production
associated with the labourer. People were able
to create capital by themselves because they
could invest in their own knowledge and skills
by being educated. This shift caused that the
immobility of class distinctions between the
capitalists and the laborers no longer holds.
The laborer can now also be seen as an
investor. This was stimulating for the laborer to
acquire new skills and knowledge after industrialisation
knowledge gained importance
education gained importance
Neo-capital theory
investing in knowledge and skills
laborer IS capital! knowledge skills Macro level explanation Micro level explanation Social Capital Max Weber (1864-1920) Theoretical founder: Distinction between economical, political and social resources. Resource were considered capital if somebody had access to it to improve his or her life chances. Later Bordieu (1930-2002) defined this theory by stating that resources can only be seen as capital when being used. Definition Social Capital is investing in social relations to gain social resources and 2nd order social resources to get positive influence on life chances. Essential is: the social network Social Capital is always embedded in a structure. A social structure consists of
positions, authorities, rules and occupants. These elements together form a hierarchy in a social structure. It depends of your status and reputation which position you take in the hierarchical pyramid. The position you have has consequences for your opportunities to maintain already acquired resources (expressive action) or gain new resources (instrumental action). maintain already acquired resources (expressive action)
gain new resources (instrumental action). Heterophilous interaction Homophilous
interaction
the size of the network
quality of ties
frequency of contacts
nature of ties
status within the network
reputation within the network
density of the network Measuring effects of social capital Important in a network: Cause or effect? “Of all the domains I have traced the consequences of socal capital, in none is the importance of social connectedness so well established as in the case of health and well being” (Putnam, 2002). How does social capital influence health? Social networks furnish concrete assistance such as money, care and transportation which reduces physical stress and provides a safety net. The bigger you social network is, the faster somebody notice when there is something wrong with your health. 1. 2. Social networks can reinforce healthy norms. People who are socially isolated are more likely to smoke,
drink, overeat and engage in health damaging
behaviours. 3. Social Capital might actually
serve as a psychological triggering
mechanism, stimulating people’s immune
systems to fight disease and buffer stress. A large body of existing literature suggests that social relations and meaningful community connections have powerful beneficial effects on health
Social Capital can help maintaining social cohesion in the face of rapid environmental change
Social Capital is thought to facilitate community self help allowing communities to more easily work together. Other arguments (Wakefield & Poland, 2004). Theory of Wilkinson, 1996 Bonding social capital Bridging social capital Wilkinson asked himself the question:
“Why are some societies healthier than other?” Researchers, used to focuss on determinants of individual health, weren’t able to answer this question... “We have in effect been learning about the interface between the individual and the society and the effect of structural factors on health: about how people are affected by social position, by wealth and poverty, by job insecurity and unemployment, by education, by social mobility, about the importance of social networks, about family disruption and about the social organisation of work. In doing so we have learned almost as much about society as we have about health.” People in low social class can feel relatively deprived which can influence there health on a negative way. Gaining new Social Capital using instrumental action can result in a higher social position which has positive influence on the individuals health. The essence: Relative deprivation
!!!!!! The quality of social life is according to Wilkinson the most powerful determinant of health. This is closely related to the degree of income equality. The more equal income is divided within a population the more healthy a population is. What can you do with this knowledge as a health Promotor? mutual trust
reciprocity network
building bridges
Synergy
participation
empowerment
key persons
community development Positive and negative!!!!! network
salutogenic appraoch
health marketing
norms and values
capacity building
reducing inequalities
getting funds
analysis by using theory Write down (in couples) how you can promote/improve health of a community (related to your project) by using the theory of social capital?

Work according to the questions below:
What specifically do you want to work on (related to social capital)? > goal!!
How are you going to do this? > strategy!!
How are you going to measure this? > evaluation!! Theory of Panayotov, 2004 Winners: people who benefit from it, and
Losers: people who benefit less or nothing at all, or are worse off (relative loosers and absolute loosers). Increasing Average Health Status, or decreasing Health Inequalities? For any intervention on populations the distribution of the benefit is the most important factor influencing the outcomes! Sustainable wellbeing is: improving health and quality of life of whole populations with the available resources by minimizing health inequalities, a process where Panayotov Matrix facilitates the right choices. Health Literacy & Health Promotion An individual's ability to read, write, and speak and to compute and solveproblems at the level of proficiency necessary to function on the job and in society, to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential.' (national literacy act, US, 1991) basic/functional literacy communicative/interactive literacy critical literacy To function in daily life to find information about existing and new questions regarding health comparing and testing information
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